Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(4) > 1081348

J Nutr Health. 2014 Aug;47(4):287-299. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.4.287
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
4th-grade elementary-school children's body image and dietary habits according to body mass index
Eugene Shim, and Yoon Kyoung Yang
Department of Food and Nutrition, Soongeui Women's College, Seoul 100-751, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-3708-9263, Email: eugene_shim@daum.net
Received April 15, 2014; Revised April 30, 2014; Accepted July 22, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this study was to examine body image satisfaction and perception according to weight status, and to investigate those associations with dietary habits and nutritional status among preadolescent children.

Methods

Body image and dietary habits and intake were assessed in 134 elementary school students in grade 4. Children were categorized according to normal and overweight or obese groups. Figure rating scales were used to assess body image perception (identification of perceived current body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current body size and ideal body image).

Results

There were sex differences in body image perceptions. Normal-weight girls, overweight or obese girls and boys were more likely to desire a leaner body size than their perceived body size compared with normal-weight boys. Body image satisfaction and perception showed an association with weight status. More overweight or obese children indicated dissatisfaction or underestimation of body image than normal-weight children. Children with body image dissatisfaction due to heavier perceived body size than ideal body image showed lower frequencies of consumption of meals and vegetables, compared to those who were satisfied with their body image. Children who underestimated their body image were more likely to have a lower frequency of breakfast and meal regularity and a higher frequency of eating out of home or food deliveries than those with accurate body image perception. In addition, body image underestimation showed an association with lower intakes of protein, dietary fiber and calcium, and the higher percentage of calories derived from fat.

Conclusion

Body image dissatisfaction as well as underestimation in children before puberty showed an association with overweight or obesity, and was also related to unhealthy dietary habits. These findings highlight the importance of accurate perception and satisfaction with body image in preadolescent children in order to prevent development of obesity in adolescents and adults.

Keywords: body image; satisfaction; underestimation; obesity; dietary habits

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of subjects
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Table 2
Body images according to BMI and sex
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Table 3
Body image satisfaction and perception according to BMI and sex
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Table 4
Dietary habits according to BMI
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Table 5
Nutrient intake according to BMI
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Table 6
BMI according to body image
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Table 7
Dietary habits according to body image
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Table 8
Nutrient intake according to body image
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