Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(4) > 1081344

J Nutr Health. 2014 Aug;47(4):247-257. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.4.247
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
Comparison of chronic disease risk by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio in Korean elderly: Using the 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Min Seon Park,1 Yoon Suk Suh,2 and Young-Jin Chung1
1Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.
2Graduate School of Education, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-42-821-6833, Email: yjchung@cnu.ac.kr
Received January 22, 2014; Revised February 12, 2014; Accepted August 12, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

It is reported that most senior people consume a high carbohydrate diet, while a high carbohydrate diet could contribute to the risk of chronic disease. The aim of this study is to determine whether a high carbohydrate diet can increase the risk of chronic disease in elderly Koreans.

Methods

Using the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Nutrition Examination Survey data, out of a total of 3,917 individuals aged 65 and above, final 1,535 subjects were analyzed, divided by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio into two groups of moderate carbohydrate ratio (MCR, 55-70%) and excessive carbohydrate ratio (ECR, > 70%). All data were processed after the application of weighted value, using a general linear model or logistic regression.

Results

Eighty one percent of elderly Koreans consumed diets with carbohydrate energy ratio above 70%. The ECR group included more female subjects, rural residents, lower income, and lower education level. The ECR group showed lower waist circumference, lower diastolic blood pressure, and lower frequency of consumption of meat and egg, milk, and alcohol. The intake of energy and most nutrients, with the exception of fiber, potassium, vitamin A, and carotene, was lower in the ECR group compared to the MCR group. When analyzed by gender, the ECR group showed lower risk of dyslipidemia in male and obesity in female subjects, even though the ECR group showed low intake of some nutrients. No difference in the risk of hypertension, diabetes, and anemia was observed between the two groups in male or female subjects.

Conclusion

This result suggested that a high carbohydrate diet would not be a cause to increase the risk of chronic disease in the elderly. Further study is needed in order to determine an appropriate carbohydrate energy ratio for elderly Koreans to reduce the risk of chronic disease.

Keywords: Korean elderly; carbohydrate energy ratio; risk; chronic disease; acceptable macronutrient distribution range

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics and distribution of energy intake by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio in total subjects
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Table 2
Anthropometric, blood pressure and blood biochemical indices by carbohydrate energy ratio in total subjects1)
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Table 3
Daily food group consumption frequency by carbohydrate energy ratio in total and male and female subjects1)
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Table 4
Daily nutrients intake and macronutrient energy ratio by carbohydrate energy ratio in total and male and female subjects1)
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Table 5
Nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) by carbohydrate energy ratio in total and male and female subjects1)
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Table 6
Index of nutrient quality (INQ) by carbohydrate energy ratio in total and male and female subjects1)
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Table 7
Distribution of risk group and Odd's ratio for chronic disease by carbohydrate energy ratio in total and male1)
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