Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(3) > 1081336

J Nutr Health. 2014 Jun;47(3):186-192. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.3.186
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
The effect of high-carbohydrate diet and low-fat diet for the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents: Using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 1998-2009
Mi-Rhan Han,1 Jeong Hyun Lim,2 and YoonJu Song1
1Major of Food & Nutrition, School of Human Ecology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea.
2Department of Food Service and Nutrition Care, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-2164-4681, Email: yjsong@catholic.ac.kr
Received February 21, 2014; Revised March 21, 2014; Accepted May 21, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased in both the adult population and in adolescents. How-ever, few studies have been conducted for adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors with high carbohydrate diet and high fat diet using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009).

Methods

Using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, subjects whose energy intake from carbohydrate was greater than 70% and from fat was less than 15% were classified as the 'High-carbohydrate & low-fat diet (HCLF)' group and subjects whose energy intake from carbohydrate was less than 60% and from fat was 25% or more were classified as the 'Low-carbohydrate & high-fat Diet (LCHF)' group. Among 5,931 eligible subjects, HCLF included 853 subjects and LCHF included 1,084 subjects.

Results

The mean age in both groups was 14 years and significant difference in age, BMI, sex, physical activity, and household income was observed between the HCLF and LCHF groups. Regarding the energy intake compared to Estimated Energy Re-quirement, the HCLF group met 79.0% and the LCHF group met 100.3%. Regarding nutrient intake per 1,000 kcal, carbo-hydrate, iron, potassium, and vitamin C intake in the HCLF group were significantly higher, but protein, fat, calcium, phos-phorus, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin intakes were significantly lower in the HCLF group compared to the LCHF group. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, study year, household income, physical activity, and energy intake, the serum tri-glycerides level and systolic blood pressure were slightly higher, while the serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower in HCLF than LCHF. The odds ratio of metabolic syndrome did not differ significantly between HCLF and LCHF.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate an association of a high carbohydrate diet with increased risks for metabolic syndrome components. Conduct of future studies would be necessary in order to explore the underlying mechanism and to confirm our findings in a prospective study.

Keywords: adolescents; high carbohydrate diet; high fat diet; metabolic syndrome; KNHANES

Figures


Fig. 1
The percent of energy intake (per EER) of study subjects. HCLF: High-carbohydrate & low-fat Diet, LCHF: Low-carbohydrate & high-fat Diet.
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Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of study subjects and macronutrient intakes
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Table 2
Nutrient intake (per 1,000 kcal) of study subjects
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Table 3
Anthropometric and biochemical parameters of study subjects
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Table 4
The odd ratios of metabolic syndrome on study subjects
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Notes

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2013R1A1A3010359).

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