Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(2) > 1081331

J Nutr Health. 2014 Apr;47(2):134-144. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2014.
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
Factors influencing on intention to intake fruit: moderating effect of fruit intake habit
Hyesoo Kim and Sunhee Seo
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-3277-4484, Email:
Received December 13, 2013; Revised January 08, 2014; Accepted February 21, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting fruit consumption behavior by application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. In addition, this study examined the moderating effect of a fruit eating habit.


A total of 734 consumers who have ever purchased fruit participated in this study.


Results of this study showed that attitudes toward fruit intake, social norms, and perceived behavioral control had significant impacts on the level of fruit intake. Fruit eating habit that showed high correlation with eating behavior was also included in the model identifying factors having an influence on fruit intake. Attitudes toward fruit intake, social norms, and perceived behavioral control had a positive influence on intention to intake fruit. Fruit eating habits played a moderating role in the relationships between intention to intake fruit and real fruit intake.


Increasing positive attitudes toward fruit intake, social norms, and perceived behavioral control would be helpful in increasing the amount of fruit intake.

Keywords: theory of planned behavior; fruit intake habit; fruit intake; attitudes towards fruit intake; subjective norms; perceived behavioral control


Fig. 1
Research model.
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Table 1
Demographics of respondents (n = 734)
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Table 2
Reliability analysis of constructs
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Table 3
Results of hypothesis tests
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Table 4
Comparison of emotional attitude toward fruit intake by gender, marital status, income, and household
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Table 5
Comparison of cognitive attitude toward fruit intake by gender, marital status, income, and household
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Table 6
Comparison of perceived behavioral control by gender, marital status, income, and household
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Table 7
Comparison of subjective norm by gender, marital status, income, and household
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Table 8
Comparison of fruit intake habit by gender, marital status, income, and household
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Table 9
Comparison of intention to intake fruit by gender, marital status, income, and household
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This research was partially supported from the National Apple Association.

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