Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(2) > 1081331

J Nutr Health. 2014 Apr;47(2):134-144. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.2.134
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
Factors influencing on intention to intake fruit: moderating effect of fruit intake habit
Hyesoo Kim and Sunhee Seo
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-3277-4484, Email: seo@ewha.ac.kr
Received December 13, 2013; Revised January 08, 2014; Accepted February 21, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting fruit consumption behavior by application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. In addition, this study examined the moderating effect of a fruit eating habit.

Methods

A total of 734 consumers who have ever purchased fruit participated in this study.

Results

Results of this study showed that attitudes toward fruit intake, social norms, and perceived behavioral control had significant impacts on the level of fruit intake. Fruit eating habit that showed high correlation with eating behavior was also included in the model identifying factors having an influence on fruit intake. Attitudes toward fruit intake, social norms, and perceived behavioral control had a positive influence on intention to intake fruit. Fruit eating habits played a moderating role in the relationships between intention to intake fruit and real fruit intake.

Conclusion

Increasing positive attitudes toward fruit intake, social norms, and perceived behavioral control would be helpful in increasing the amount of fruit intake.

Keywords: theory of planned behavior; fruit intake habit; fruit intake; attitudes towards fruit intake; subjective norms; perceived behavioral control

Figures


Fig. 1
Research model.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Demographics of respondents (n = 734)
Click for larger image


Table 2
Reliability analysis of constructs
Click for larger image


Table 3
Results of hypothesis tests
Click for larger image


Table 4
Comparison of emotional attitude toward fruit intake by gender, marital status, income, and household
Click for larger image


Table 5
Comparison of cognitive attitude toward fruit intake by gender, marital status, income, and household
Click for larger image


Table 6
Comparison of perceived behavioral control by gender, marital status, income, and household
Click for larger image


Table 7
Comparison of subjective norm by gender, marital status, income, and household
Click for larger image


Table 8
Comparison of fruit intake habit by gender, marital status, income, and household
Click for larger image


Table 9
Comparison of intention to intake fruit by gender, marital status, income, and household
Click for larger image

Notes

This research was partially supported from the National Apple Association.

References
1. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.
2. Kwon JH, Shim JE, Park MK, Back HY. Evaluation of fruits and vegetables intake for prevention of chronic disease in Korean adults aged 30 years and over: Using the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III), 2005. Korean J Nutr 2009;42(2):146–157.
3. Food and Agriculture Organization (US). World Health Organization. Fruit and vegetable for health: report of a joint FAO/WHO workshop; 1-3 September 2004; Kobe, Japan. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.
4. Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, Khunti K, Davies MJ. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c4229.
5. Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Fruit and vegetable consumption and diabetes mellitus incidence among U.S. adults. Prev Med 2001;32(1):33–39.
6. Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, Cooper LS, Obarzanek E, Elmer PJ, Stevens VJ, Vollmer WM, Lin PH, Svetkey LP, Stedman SW, Young DR. Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. JAMA 2003;289(16):2083–2093.
7. Utsugi MT, Ohkubo T, Kikuya M, Kurimoto A, Sato RI, Suzuki K, Metoki H, Hara A, Tsubono Y, Imai Y. Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of hypertension determined by self measurement of blood pressure at home: the Ohasama study. Hypertens Res 2008;31(7):1435–1443.
8. Buijsse B, Feskens EJ, Schulze MB, Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ, Sharp S, Palli D, Tognon G, Halkjaer J, Tjønneland A, Jakobsen MU, Overvad K, van der A DL, Du H, Sørensen TI, Boeing H. Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes). Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(1):202–209.
9. Epstein LH, Gordy CC, Raynor HA, Beddome M, Kilanowski CK, Paluch R. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk for childhood obesity. Obes Res 2001;9(3):171–178.
10. Dauchet L, Amouyel P, Hercberg S, Dallongeville J. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 2006;136(10):2588–2593.
11. Nikolić M, Nikić D, Petrović B. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk for developing coronary heart disease. Cent Eur J Public Health 2008;16(1):17–20.
12. Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Vupputuri S, Myers L, Whelton PK. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1):93–99.
13. Boggs DA, Palmer JR, Wise LA, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of breast cancer in the Black Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172(11):1268–1279.
14. Freedman ND, Park Y, Subar AF, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC. Fruit and vegetable intake and head and neck cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer 2008;122(10):2330–2336.
15. Millen AE, Subar AF, Graubard BI, Peters U, Hayes RB, Weissfeld JL, Yokochi LA, Ziegler RG. PLCO Cancer Screening Trial Project Team. Fruit and vegetable intake and prevalence of colorectal adenoma in a cancer screening trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86(6):1754–1764.
16. Johnston KL, White KM. Binge-drinking: A test of the role of group norms in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Psychol Health 2003;18(1):63–77.
17. Tuu HH, Olsen SO, Thao DT, Anh NT. The role of norms in explaining attitudes, intention and consumption of a common food (fish) in Vietnam. Appetite 2008;51(3):546–551.
18. Rhodes RE, De Bruijn GJ. Automatic and motivational correlates of physical activity: does intensity moderate the relationship? Behav Med 2010;36(2):44–52.
19. Godin G, Amireault S, Béllanger-Gravel A, Vohl MC, Pélrusse L, Guillaumie L. Prediction of daily fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese individuals. Appetite 2010;54(3):480–484.
20. Guillaumie L, Godin G, Vézina-Im LA. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in adult population: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2010;7:12.
21. Zoellner J, Krzeski E, Harden S, Cook E, Allen K, Estabrooks PA. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112(11):1774–1784.
22. Chen MF. Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions in relation to organic foods in Taiwan: Moderating effects of food-related personality traits. Food Qual Prefer 2007;18(7):1008–1021.
23. De Bruijn GJ, Kremers SPJ, De Vet EE, De Nooijer J, Van Mechelen W, Brug J. Does habit strength moderate the intention-behaviour relationship in the Theory of Planned Behaviour? The case of fruit consumption. Psychol Health 2007;22(8):899–916.
24. Arvola A, Vassallo M, Dean M, Lampila P, Saba A, Lähteenmäki L, Shepherd R. Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: the role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Appetite 2008;50(2-3):443–454.
25. Latimer AE, Martin Ginis KA. The importance of subjective norms for people who care what others think of them. Psychol Health 2005;20(1):53–62.
26. Manstead AS, van Eekelen SA. Distinguishing between perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy in the domain of academic achievement intentions and behaviors. J Appl Soc Psychol 1998;28(15):1375–1392.
27. Povey R, Conner M, Sparks P, James R, Shepherd R. Application of the theory of planned behaviour to two dietary behaviours: roles of perceived control and self-efficacy. Br J Health Psychol 2000;5(2):121–139.
28. Sparks P, Guthrie CA, Shepherd R. The dimensional structure of the perceived behavioral control construct. J Appl Soc Psychol 1997;27(5):418–438.
29. Aarts H, Paulussen T, Schaalma H. Physical exercise habit: on the conceptualization and formation of habitual health behaviours. Health Educ Res 1997;12(3):363–374.
30. Bamberg S, Ajzen I, Schmidt P. Choice of travel mode in the theory of planned behavior: The roles of past behavior, habit, and reasoned action. Basic Appl Soc Psych 2003;25(3):175–187.
31. Brug J, De Vet E, De Nooijer J, Verplanken B. Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits. J Nutr Educ Behav 2006;38(2):73–81.
32. Reinaerts E, De Nooijer J, Candel M, De Vries N. Explaining school children's fruit and vegetable consumption: the contributions of availability, accessibility, exposure, parental consumption and habit in addition to psychosocial factors. Appetite 2007;48(2):248–258.
33. Kothe EJ, Mullan BA, Butow P. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour. Appetite 2012;58(3):997–1004.
34. Sjoberg S, Kim K, Reicks M. Applying the theory of planned behavior to fruit and vegetable consumption by older adults. J Nutr Elder 2004;23(4):35–46.
35. Cha MH, Kim YK. Consumers' purchasing intentions of organic foods in relation to the perceived health concerns, healthy eating practices and attitudes, and food choice motives. Korean J Community Nutr 2009;14(3):286–294.
36. Verplanken B, Orbell S. Reflections on past behavior: a self-report index of habit strength. J Appl Soc Psychol 2003;33(6):1313–1330.
37. De Bruijn GJ. Understanding college students' fruit consumption. Integrating habit strength in the theory of planned behaviour. Appetite 2010;54(1):16–22.
38. Ahn Y, Kim KW. Beliefs regarding vegetable consumption, self-efficacy and eating behaviors according to the stages of change in vegetable consumption among college students. Korean J Community Nutr 2012;17(1):1–13.
39. Emanuel AS, McCully SN, Gallagher KM, Updegraff JA. Theory of planned behavior explains gender difference in fruit and vegetable consumption. Appetite 2012;59(3):693–697.