Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.47(1) > 1081329

J Nutr Health. 2014 Feb;47(1):12-22. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2014.47.1.12
© 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society
Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity
Jae Sung Lee,1 Yun Hwan Kang,2 Kyoung Kon Kim,1 Yeong Kyeong Yun,1 Jun Gu Lim,2 Tae Woo Kim,2 Dae Jung Kim,2 Sang Yeon Won,3 Moo Hoan Bae,3 Han Seok Choi,4 and Myeon Choe1,2
1Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Gangwon 200-701, Korea.
2Well-Being Bioproducts RIC, Kangwon National University, Gangwon 200-701, Korea.
3NS Mall, Seongnam-si 463-400, Korea.
4Fermented Food Science Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-853, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-33-250-8645, Email: mchoe@kangwon.ac.kr
Received December 02, 2013; Revised January 06, 2014; Accepted January 16, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity.

Methods

The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, X1), saccharogenic time (ST, X2), and dependent variable; ΔE value (y). The condition with the lowest ΔE value occurred with combined 45 min ST and 50℃ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS.

Results

Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that α-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner.

Conclusion

Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

Keywords: response surface methodology; volatile compounds; saccharogenic mixed grain beverage; α-glucosidase; anti-diabetic activity

Figures


Fig. 1
Response surface plot of Brix° on the SMGB as functions of gelanization temperature and saccharogenic times.
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Fig. 2
Contour map of optimzied conditions for the brix° of SMGB as functions of gelanization temperature and saccharogenic times.
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Fig. 3
Effect of SMGB on α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determination, different letters on the bars (a-c) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test.
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Fig. 4
Measurement of glucose uptake activity and GLUT-2, -4 expression in HepG2 cell. A: Effect of SMGB (Asp. CF1001) on glucose uptake. B: Effect of SMGB on GLUT-2, GLUT-4 mRNA expression. C: Effect of SMGB on GLUT-2, GLUT-4 protein expression. Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determination, different letters on the bars (a-d) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test. GLUT: Glucose-transporter.
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Fig. 5
Measurement of glycolytic key enzyme expression in HepG2 cell. A: Effect of SMGB on GK and PDH mRNA expression. B: Effect of SMGB on GK and PDH protein expression. Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determination, different letters on the bars (a-c) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test. GK: glucokinase, PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase.
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Fig. 6
Effect of SMGB on ACL and ACC mRNA expression in HepG2 cell. Values are mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determination, different letters on the bars (a-c) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) by Duncan's multiple range test. ACL: ATP-citrate lyase, ACC: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
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Tables


Table 1
Central composite design for brix° on sacchrogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) with gelatinzation temperature and saccharogenic time
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Table 2
PCR primer sequences
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Table 3
PCR condition of each primer
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Table 4
Central composite design for brix° on SMGB with gelatinzation temperature and saccharogenic time
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Table 5
Polynomial equation calculated for Brix° by RSM program for SMGB
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Table 6
Predicted levels of optimum conditions for the maximized and minimized responses of variables by the ridge analysis of their response surface
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Table 7
Regression analysis for regression model of Brix° in saccharogenic condition of SMGB
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Table 8
Volatile compouds of SMGB
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Notes

This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ009129)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea, Institute of Bioscience Biotechnology (Project No. 320130015) and Well-being Bioproducts Regional innovation Center project (B0009702).

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