Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.46(6) > 1081320

J Nutr Health. 2013 Dec;46(6):540-551. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2013.
© 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society
Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Korea: Results from KNHANES 2010 to 2011
In Kyung Jung
Department of Beauty Art, Honam University, Gwangju 502-791, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received September 23, 2013; Revised November 18, 2013; Accepted November 20, 2013.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is becoming an epidemic and thereby a global health problem. Further, VDD adversely affects calcium metabolism and skeletal health, and is associated with increased risk of several diseases, e.g., autoimmune diseases, several types of cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, asthma, psoriatic arthritis, and etc. To evaluate the prevalence of VDD in Korea, and then to evaluate the association of several factors with serum 25(OH)D level, the author analyzed the data of 14,456 individuals who were 10 years of age and over from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1 & 2 (KNHANES V-1 & 2) conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. As a result, among Koreans (age ≧ 10years), 65.9% of males and 77.7% of females were below optimum blood serum 25(OH)D (20 ng/mL). VDD is more severe in female than in male at all age groups. In addition, the younger generations had less 25(OH)D level than older generations in Korea. The analysis by complex sample general linear model (CSGLM) suggested that blood 25(OH)D concentration was related with gender (p < .001), residence (p = .030), occupation (p < .001), anemia (p < .001) and physical activity (p < .001). In conclusion, VDD is pandemic and it is more severe in younger generations in Korea. Further, from the results by CSGLM, serum 25(OH)D status is closely related with the life style of Koreans.

Keywords: vitamin D; VDD; 25(OH)D; life style; KNHANES


Table 1
General characteristics for participants of KNHANES 2010-2011 (age ≥ 10 years)
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Table 2
25(OH)D concentration by several parameters in males (age ≥ 10 years)
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Table 3
25(OH)D concentration by several parameters in females (age ≥ 10 years)
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Table 4
Model effect analysis by CSGLM1)
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Table 5
Parameter estimates1) by CSGLM
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