Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.46(4) > 1081301

J Nutr Health. 2013 Aug;46(4):332-345. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2013.46.4.332
© 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society
Comparison of food and nutrient intake between weekday and weekend for elementary and middle school students by gender in Busan and some parts of Kyungsangnamdo
Mi Jeong Kim
Department of Food and Nutrition, Silla University, Busan 617-736, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: mjkim@silla.ac.kr )
Received June 08, 2013; Revised July 16, 2013; Accepted July 26, 2013.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of elementary and middle school students by gender with an emphasis on comparison of nutritional intake between weekday and weekend. Survey construct included one 24-hour diet recall and two diet records, short food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometry. Eating behaviors and nutritional intake were largely different for four groups divided by age and gender: ME, FE, MM, and FM. Frequency of consumption of healthful foods was significantly higher in the ME and FE groups. The highest and lowest scores for frequency of eating with parents were observed in the FE and FM groups, respectively. The amount of consumption of food groups was lower on weekends than on weekdays and this trend was more prominent in elementary schoolers compared with middle schoolers. In terms of food group consumption as well as energy and nutrient intake, the ME group showed the greatest differences between weekday and weekend, followed by FE, MM, and FM, in descending order. A significantly higher amount of potassium, phosphorus, and calcium was consumed on weekdays than on the weekend in the ME and FE groups. The amount of energy and nutrient intake was smallest in the FM group; however, the difference between weekday and weekend was minimal as well. In comparison of the subjects' energy and nutrient intake with their Korean Dietary Reference Intakes values (%KDRI), the MM group showed the most undesirable results for energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin B6, calcium, and zinc. Overall, findings indicated that nutritional intake status may differ between weekday and weekend for elementary and middle schoolers by gender, suggesting that youth may benefit from nutritional education programs that stress the impact of gender and weekend effect on their dietary intake.

Keywords: elementary and middle schoolers; dietary intake; weekday and weekend; 24-hour diet recall and diet record; KDRIs

Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of study subjects
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Table 2
Percentage of subjects who consumed ten food items
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Table 3
Exploratory factor analysis for food consumption frequencies of ten food items
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Table 4
Comparison of food behaviors of study subjects
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Table 5
Paired t-test for food group intake of study subjects on weekday versus weekend
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Table 6
Paired t-test for energy and nutrient intake of study subjects on weekday versus weekend
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Table 7
Comparison of energy and nutrient intake of study subjects based on the 2005 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes values at weekday and weekend
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