Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.46(4) > 1081299

Kim, Kang, Kim, Kim, and Choe: Comparison of antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf and root extracts of Smilax china L.


This study was conducted in order to compare the biological activities of leaf and root water extracts of Smilax china L. (SC) by measuring the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, anti-oxidant activity, inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and anti-inflammatory gene expression. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of SC leaf (SCLE) and root (SCRE) water extracts were 127.93 mg GAE/g and 39.50 mg GAE/g and 41.99 mg QE/g and 1.25 mg QE/g, respectively. The anti-oxidative activities of SCLE and SCRE were measured using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assay and reducing power assay. Both SCLE and SCRE scavenged radicals in a concentration-dependent manner, and SCLE showed stronger radical scavenging activity and reducing power than SCRE; however, both SCLE and SCRE exhibited lower activities than ascorbic acid. Compared to the anti-diabetic drug acarbose, which was used as a positive control, SCLE and SCRE exhibited low α-glucosidase inhibition activities; nevertheless, the activity of SCLE was 3.7 fold higher than that of SCRE. Finally, SCLE caused significantly decreased expression of the LPS-induced cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 mRNA in RAW264.7 cells, indicating anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that SCLE might be a potential candidate as an anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory agent.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
Effects of water extract from Smilax china L. leaf and root on cell viability. Raw264.7 cells were cultured for 24 hr with various concentration of leaf and root extract. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments. SCLE: Smilax china L. leaf extract, SCRE: Smilax china L. root extract.
Fig. 2
Content of total polyphenol (A) and total flavonoid (B) of Smilax china L. leaf and root extract. As standard compounds garlic acid and quercetin, respectively, were used for measurement of polyphenol and flavonoid. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
Fig. 3
Anti-oxidative activity of Smilax china L. leaf and root extract. DPPH (A) and ABTS (B) radical scavenging activity assay was carried out according to concentration dependent manner. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
Fig. 4
Anti-diabetes activity of Smilax china L. leaf and root extract. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity assay was carried out according to concentration (A) and time (B) dependent manner. Acarbose was used as positive control. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
Fig. 5
Inhibition by water extract from Smilax china L. leaf on IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 macrophage. Raw264.7 cells (1×106 cells/mL) were pre-incubate for 24 hr, and the cells were stimulated with lipopolysacchride (LPS, 1 µg/mL) in the presence of Smilax china L. leaf extract (0.5 mg/mL) for 24 hr. Each value is expressed as Mean ± SD in triplicate experiments. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01 compared with Con. #: p < 0.05, ##: p < 0.01 compared with LPS group. Con: non-treated (control) group, LPS: LPS alone treatment group, LPS + SCE: LPS induction in Smilax china L. leaf extract.
Table 1
PCR primer sets used in the experiment
Table 2
DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of water extracts obtained from Smilax china L. Leaf and root

SCLE: Smilax china L. leaf extract, SCRE: Smilax china L root extract

Table 3
Reducing power of water extracts obtained from Smilax china L. Leaf and root Abbreviations: See Table 2

The results are Mean ± SD for 3-4 repeats

1) Absorbance at 700 nm, 2) Values with different superscripts are significantly different among ascorbic acid, SCLE and SCRE


This work was supported by grants of Well-being Bioproducts Regional Innovation Center project (B0009702).


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