Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.46(4) > 1081299

J Nutr Health. 2013 Aug;46(4):315-323. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2013.
© 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society
Comparison of antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf and root extracts of Smilax china L.
Kyoung Kon Kim,1,** Yun Hwan Kang,2,** Dae Jung Kim,2 Tae Woo Kim,2 and Myeon Choe1,2
1Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Gangwon 200-701, Korea.
2Well-being Bioproducts RIC, Kangwon National University, Gangwon 200-701, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )

**These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received July 15, 2013; Revised July 29, 2013; Accepted August 19, 2013.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was conducted in order to compare the biological activities of leaf and root water extracts of Smilax china L. (SC) by measuring the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, anti-oxidant activity, inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and anti-inflammatory gene expression. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of SC leaf (SCLE) and root (SCRE) water extracts were 127.93 mg GAE/g and 39.50 mg GAE/g and 41.99 mg QE/g and 1.25 mg QE/g, respectively. The anti-oxidative activities of SCLE and SCRE were measured using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assay and reducing power assay. Both SCLE and SCRE scavenged radicals in a concentration-dependent manner, and SCLE showed stronger radical scavenging activity and reducing power than SCRE; however, both SCLE and SCRE exhibited lower activities than ascorbic acid. Compared to the anti-diabetic drug acarbose, which was used as a positive control, SCLE and SCRE exhibited low α-glucosidase inhibition activities; nevertheless, the activity of SCLE was 3.7 fold higher than that of SCRE. Finally, SCLE caused significantly decreased expression of the LPS-induced cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 mRNA in RAW264.7 cells, indicating anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that SCLE might be a potential candidate as an anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory agent.

Keywords: anti-oxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; anti-diabetic activity; α-glucosidase inhibition


Fig. 1
Effects of water extract from Smilax china L. leaf and root on cell viability. Raw264.7 cells were cultured for 24 hr with various concentration of leaf and root extract. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments. SCLE: Smilax china L. leaf extract, SCRE: Smilax china L. root extract.
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Fig. 2
Content of total polyphenol (A) and total flavonoid (B) of Smilax china L. leaf and root extract. As standard compounds garlic acid and quercetin, respectively, were used for measurement of polyphenol and flavonoid. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
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Fig. 3
Anti-oxidative activity of Smilax china L. leaf and root extract. DPPH (A) and ABTS (B) radical scavenging activity assay was carried out according to concentration dependent manner. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
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Fig. 4
Anti-diabetes activity of Smilax china L. leaf and root extract. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity assay was carried out according to concentration (A) and time (B) dependent manner. Acarbose was used as positive control. Results are presented as Mean ± SD of three independent experiments.
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Fig. 5
Inhibition by water extract from Smilax china L. leaf on IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 macrophage. Raw264.7 cells (1×106 cells/mL) were pre-incubate for 24 hr, and the cells were stimulated with lipopolysacchride (LPS, 1 µg/mL) in the presence of Smilax china L. leaf extract (0.5 mg/mL) for 24 hr. Each value is expressed as Mean ± SD in triplicate experiments. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01 compared with Con. #: p < 0.05, ##: p < 0.01 compared with LPS group. Con: non-treated (control) group, LPS: LPS alone treatment group, LPS + SCE: LPS induction in Smilax china L. leaf extract.
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Table 1
PCR primer sets used in the experiment
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Table 2
DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of water extracts obtained from Smilax china L. Leaf and root
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Table 3
Reducing power of water extracts obtained from Smilax china L. Leaf and root Abbreviations: See Table 2
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This work was supported by grants of Well-being Bioproducts Regional Innovation Center project (B0009702).

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