Journal List > Korean J Sports Med > v.33(2) > 1054554

Korean J Sports Med. 2015 Dec;33(2):88-95. Korean.
Published online December 07, 2015.
Copyright © 2015 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine
Analysis of Landing Error Scoring System during Drop Vertical Jump on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors in Female Ballet Dancers and Female Soccer Players
Ji Hoon Cho,1 Keun Ok An,2 Eun Ok Cho,3 and Bee Oh Lim4
1Department of Social Physical Education, Shingyeong University, Hwaseong, Korea.
2Department of Sport Biomechanics, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea.
3Department of Kinesiologic Medical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.
4Department of Physical Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.

Correspondence: Bee Oh Lim. Department of Physical Education, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea. Tel: +82-2-820-5121, Fax: +82-2-812-2729, Email:
Received April 07, 2015; Revised May 22, 2015; Accepted June 02, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among female ballet dancers is much lower than among female soccer players, there is currently little research examining the landing error scoring system (LESS) of female ballet dancers and female soccer players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the LESS during drop vertical jump on ACL injury risk factors in female ballet dancers and female soccer players. Thirteen professional female ballet dancers and elite female soccer players participated in the study. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the LESS score between the groups with Bonferroni collection. The elite female soccer player group showed significantly higher stance width-wide, foot position-toe out, symmetric initial foot contact, overall impression and total LESS score than those of the professional ballet dancers.

Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament; Female soccer players; Injury risk factors; Landing error scoring system


Fig. 1
Composion of landing erorr scoring system.
Click for larger image

Fig. 2
(A) Analysis of landing erorr scoring system (front). (B) Analysis of landing erorr scoring system (side).
Click for larger image


Table 1
Physical characteristics of subjects
Click for larger image

Table 2
Evaluation standard of landing error scoring system (LESS)
Click for larger image

Table 3
Landing error scoring system variable
Click for larger image


No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

1. Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train 2007;42:311–319.
2. Hawkins RD, Hulse MA, Wilkinson C, Hodson A, Gibson M. The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football. Br J Sports Med 2001;35:43–47.
3. Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: a systematic video analysis. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:1002–1012.
4. Dufek JS, Bates BT. The evaluation and prediction of impact forces during landings. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990;22:370–377.
5. Decker MJ, Torry MR, Wyland DJ, Sterett WI, Richard Steadman J. Gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, kinetics and energy absorption during landing. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003;18:662–669.
6. Zhang SN, Bates BT, Dufek JS. Contributions of lower extremity joints to energy dissipation during landings. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:812–819.
7. Kim YK. In: The Effects of a 12-week exercise training program on ligament stability, knee function, and lysholm score after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National University; 2002.
8. Ford KR, Shapiro R, Myer GD, Van Den Bogert AJ, Hewett TE. Longitudinal sex differences during landing in knee abduction in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:1923–1931.
9. Lim BO. The effects of knee brace on the knee extensor and valgus moment during the rebound in female highschool basketball player. Korean J Phys Educ 2007;46:509–514.
10. Lim BO. Does a knee brace decrease recurrent anterior cruciate ligament injuries? Health Sports Med 2007;9:103–109.
11. Chappell JD, Yu B, Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE. A comparison of knee kinetics between male and female recreational athletes in stop-jump tasks. Am J Sports Med 2002;30:261–267.
12. Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 1, mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med 2006;34:299–311.
13. Arendt YD, Kerschbaumer F. Injury and overuse pattern in professional ballet dancers. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 2003;141:349–356.
14. Griffin LY, Agel J, Albohm MJ, et al. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000;8:141–150.
15. Noyes FR, Mooar PA, Matthews DS, Butler DL. The symptomatic anterior cruciate-deficient knee. Part I: the long-term functional disability in athletically active individuals. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1983;65:154–162.
16. Padua DA, Marshall SW, Boling MC, Thigpen CA, Garrett WE Jr, Beutler AI. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) Is a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics: The JUMP-ACL study. Am J Sports Med 2009;37:1996–2002.
17. Lee YS. Prevention for soccer injuries. Korean J Sports Med 1994;12:43–53.
18. Lee KT, Song BY, Yang KW, Kim NM, Kim CY, Park SR. Analysis of the injury in professional soccer player. Korean J Sports Med 2000;18:176–180.
19. Luthje P, Nurmi I, Kataja M, et al. Epidemiology and traumatology of injuries in elite soccer: a prospective study in Finland. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1996;6:180–185.
20. Lee JY. In: Kinematic analysis for technique difference of echappe saute motion between skilled and unskilled group in Ballet [dissertation]. Jeju: Cheju National University; 2006.
21. Smith HC, Johnson RJ, Shultz SJ, et al. A prospective evaluation of the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) as a screening tool for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Am J Sports Med 2012;40:521–526.
22. Choi IA, Lim BO. Difference in lower extremity landing biomechanics between male and female ballet dancers during the box drop landing. Korean J Sport Biomech 2009;9:647–653.
23. Orishimo KF, Liederbach M, Kremenic IJ, Hagins M, Pappas E. Comparison of landing biomechanics between male and female dancers and athletes, part 1: Influence of sex on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med 2014;42:1082–1088.
24. Cohen J. In: Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
Similar articles

Analysis of Landing Error Scoring System during Drop Vertical Jump on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors in Elite Fencers

The Prevention and Rehabilitation of Soccer Injuries

Hallux Valgus Angle in Ballet, Mordern and Trditional Dancers

Effect of Anticipation and Fatigue on Lower Extremity Joint Loads during Side-cutting in Female Soccer Player

Posterior Impingement Syndrome of the Ankle Joint in Classical Ballet Dancer