Journal List > Korean J Sports Med > v.33(2) > 1054549

Korean J Sports Med. 2015 Dec;33(2):59-66. Korean.
Published online December 07, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2015.33.2.59
Copyright © 2015 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine
A Novel Method for the Assessment of Muscle Injuries
Chan Kim,1 Jung Hoon Chai,2 Bo Kyeong Kim,3 Chul Hyun Kim,2 and Sang Won Bae4
1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
2Department of Sports Medicine, Soonchunyang University, Asan, Korea.
3Department of Social Physical Education, Korea Unversity, Seoul, Korea.
4Daejeon Teun Teun Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.

Correspondence: Sang Won Bae. Daejeon Teun Teun Hospital, 7 Mokjung-ro 19beon-gil, Jung-gu, Daejeon 34815, Korea. Tel: +82-42-220-2311, Fax: +82-42-220-2300, Email: yodeo@hanmail.net
Received November 16, 2015; Revised November 27, 2015; Accepted November 29, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Muscle injuries are very common in sports fields so diagnosis and prevention of them are as important as treatment in sports medicine. Many other devices for muscle diagnostics are provided, but non-invasiveness, cost, validity and reliability become a good measure of diagnosing and monitoring athletes. Tensiomyography (TMG) has been developed in the late 1980s to evaluate deficient muscle initially, and it was introduced into sports medicine and athletic training. It is a simple to use selective and non-invasive for measuring a skeletal muscle response. The method is based on the measurement of the radial displacement of muscle belly, which is caused by an electrical stimulator. The displacement is measured with an electric sensor which is connected to a computer system. It gives the information of maximal displacement of the belly (Dm) with following time parameters: delay time, contraction time (Tc), sustain time, and relaxation time. TMG studies usually focus on two common parameters: Tc and Dm. An increase in Tc indicates a muscle with a predominance of slow-twitch fibers. A decrease in Dm indicates an increase in muscle stiffness or tone. Other studies have been mainly associated with physiological characteristics of muscles, risk factors for muscle or ligament injuries, muscle fatigue, and muscle diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We think the application of TMG to the sports field can reduce the risk of sports injuries and increase performance of athletes. In medical field, it allows functional diagnosis of muscle strain, monitoring rehabilitation, and modifying treatment strategy effectively.

Keywords: Muscle injury; Tensiomyography; Muscle belly; Noninvasive

Figures


Fig. 1
System components of TMG include ① sensor, ② electrodes, ③ electrical stimulator, and ℣ notebook (user interface). TMG: tensiomyography.
Click for larger image


Fig. 2
Positioning of the subject during rectus femoris (A) and biceps femoris (B) measurements.
Click for larger image


Fig. 3
TMG record with parameters' definitions. TMG: tensiomyography, Dm: maximal displacement, Td: delay time, Tc: contraction time, Ts: sustain time, Tr: relaxation time.
Click for larger image


Fig. 4
TMG responses in 9-year-old children. TMG: tensiomyography (adapted from Pisot et al. Kinesiology 2004;36:90-7).13)
Click for larger image

Notes

Conflict of Interest:No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

References
1. Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Walden M. Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). Am J Sports Med 2011;39:1226–1232.
2. Ekstrand J, Healy JC, Walden M, Lee JC, English B, Hagglund M. Hamstring muscle injuries in professional football: the correlation of MRI findings with return to play. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:112–117.
3. Islam MA, Sundaraj K, Ahmad RB, Ahamed NU. Mechanomyogram for muscle function assessment: a review. PLoS One 2013;8(3):e58902.
4. Ma MY. In: MMG sensor for muscle activity detection-low cost design, implementation and experimentation [dissertation]. Auckland: Massey University; 2009.
5. Divakaran S, Abraham S, Janney JB, Umashaukar G. Analyzing EMG and MMG signals for MMG driven bionic arm. J Chem Pharm Res 2015;7:56–61.
6. Wikipedia. Tensiomyography [Internet]. San Francisco: Wikimedia Foundation; 2015 [cited 2015 Nov 30].
7. Delagi EF, Perotto A. In: Anatomical guide for the electromyographer: the limbs and trunk. Springfield: Thomas; 2011.
8. Valencic V, Knez N. Measuring of skeletal muscles' dynamic properties. Artif Organs 1997;21:240–242.
9. Dahmane R, Valen i V, Knez N, Er en I. Evaluation of the ability to make non-invasive estimation of muscle contractile properties on the basis of the muscle belly response. Med Biol Eng Comput 2001;39:51–55.
10. Valencic V, Knez N, Simunic B. Tensiomyography: detectionof skeletal muscle response by means of radial muscle belly displacement. Biomed Eng 2001;1:1–10.
11. Dahmane R, Djordjevic S, Simunic B, Valencic V. Spatial fiber type distribution in normal human muscle Histochemical and tensiomyographical evaluation. J Biomech 2005;38:2451–2459.
12. Simunic B, Degens H, Rittweger J, Narici M, Mekjavic IB, Pisot R. Noninvasive estimation of myosin heavy chain composition in human skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43:1619–1625.
13. Pisot R, Kersevan K, Djordjevic S, Medved V, Zavrsnik J, Simunic B. Differentiation of skeletal muscles in 9-year-old children. Kinesiology 2004;36:90–97.
14. Pisot R, Narici MV, Simunic B, et al. Whole muscle contractile parameters and thickness loss during 35-day bed rest. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008;104:409–414.
15. Edgerton VR, Zhou MY, Ohira Y, et al. Human fiber size and enzymatic properties after 5 and 11 days of spaceflight. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1995;78:1733–1739.
16. Clement G. The musculo-skeletal system in space. In: Clement G, editor. Fundamentals of space medicine. El Segundo: Microcosm Press and Kluwer Academic; 2003. pp. 173-204.
17. Hunter AM, Galloway SD, Smith IJ, et al. Assessment of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the elbow flexors by tensiomyography. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012;22:334–341.
18. Krizaj D, Simunic B, Zagar T. Short-term repeatability of parameters extracted from radial displacement of muscle belly. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2008;18:645–651.
19. Macgregor LJ, Ditroilo M, Smith IJ, Fairweather MM, Hunter AM. Reduced radial displacement of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle following electrically elicited fatigue. J Sport Rehabil. 2015 Jun 10; [doi: 10.1123/jsr.2014-0325]
[Epub].
20. Rodriguez Ruiz D, Quiroga Escudero ME, Rodriguez Matoso D, et al. Tensiomiografia utilizada para a avaliação de jogadores de vôlei de praia de alto nível. Rev Bras Med Esporte 2012;18:95–99.
21. Grabljevec K, Burger H, Kersevan K, Valencic V, Marincek C. Strength and endurance of knee extensors in subjects after paralytic poliomyelitis. Disabil Rehabil 2005;27:791–799.
22. Rusu L, Calina ML, Avramescu ET, Paun E, Vasilescu M. Neuromuscular investigation in diabetic polyneuropathy. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2009;50:283–290.
23. Neamtu MC, Rusu L, Rusu PF, Neamtu OM, Georgescu D, Iancau M. Neuromuscular assessment in the study of structural changes of striated muscle in multiple sclerosis. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2011;52:1299–1303.
24. Neamtu MC, Rusu L, Neamtu OM, et al. Analysis of neuromuscular parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis and gait disorders. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2014;55:1423–1428.
25. Neamtu MC, Rusu L, Neamtu OM, Danciulescu Miulescu R, Marin MI. Complex assessment in progressive multiple sclerosis: a case report. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2014;55:197–202.
26. Ruiz DR, Manso JM, Matoso DR, Sarmiento S, Grigoletto MD, Pisot R. Effects of age and physical activity on response speed in knee flexor and extensor muscles. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act 2013;10:127–132.
27. Alentorn-Geli E, Alvarez-Diaz P, Ramon S, et al. Assessment of gastrocnemius tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics as risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in male soccer players. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015;23:2502–2507.
28. Alentorn-Geli E, Alvarez-Diaz P, Ramon S, et al. Assessment of neuromuscular risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury through tensiomyography in male soccer players. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015;23:2508–2513.
29. Alvarez-Diaz P, Alentorn-Geli E, Ramon S, et al. Effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on neuromuscular tensiomyographic characteristics of the lower extremity in competitive male soccer players. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Sep 25; [doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3319-4]
[Epub].
30. Alvarez-Diaz P, Alentorn-Geli E, Ramon S, et al. Comparison of tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics between muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity in male soccer players. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Sep 19; [doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3298-5]
[Epub].
31. Rey E, Lago-Penas C, Lago-Ballesteros J. Tensiomyography of selected lower-limb muscles in professional soccer players. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012;22:866–872.
32. Garcia-Manso JM, Rodriguez-Matoso D, Rodriguez-Ruiz D, Sarmiento S, de Saa Y, Calderon J. Effect of cold-water immersion on skeletal muscle contractile properties in soccer players. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:356–363.
33. Tous-Fajardo J, Moras G, Rodriguez-Jimenez S, Usach R, Doutres DM, Maffiuletti NA. Inter-rater reliability of muscle contractile property measurements using non-invasive tensiomyography. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2010;20:761–766.
34. Carrasco L, Sanudo B, de Hoyo M, Pradas F, Da Silva ME. Effectiveness of low-frequency vibration recovery method on blood lactate removal, muscle contractile properties and on time to exhaustion during cycling at VO(2)max power output. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;111:2271–2279.
35. Simunic B. Between-day reliability of a method for noninvasive estimation of muscle composition. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012;22:527–530.
36. Ditroilo M, Smith IJ, Fairweather MM, Hunter AM. Longterm stability of tensiomyography measured under different muscle conditions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013;23:558–563.
37. Garcia-Garcia O, Serrano-Gomez V, Hernandez-Mendo A, Tapia-Flores A. Assessment of the in-season changes in mechanical and neuromuscular characteristics in professional soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015 Sep 22; [doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3007-4]
[Epub].
TOOLS
Similar articles

Evaluation and Application of Muscle Injuries Using Tensiomyography

The Treatment of Acromioclavicular separation

A Study of Old Ligament Injuries of the Knee: Introduction of Walton's Method

Non-Operative Treatment of Isolated Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Knee Joint: Treatment with Limited Motion Brace

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation therapy after knee surgery: a systematic review