Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.46(2) > 1043979

Korean J Nutr. 2013 Apr;46(2):186-196. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2013.
© 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV)
Sung Ha Yun,1,* Jee-Seon Shim,2,* Sanghui Kweon,1 and Kyungwon Oh1
1Division of Health and Nutrition Survey, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongwon-gun 363-951, Korea.
2Clinical Research Center for Rheumatoid Arthritis, Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Disease, Seoul 133-791, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )

*These authors contributed equally to this study.

Received October 12, 2012; Revised December 17, 2012; Accepted March 20, 2013.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to develop a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for an adult population for use in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The 24-hour recall data for 2,939 subjects aged 19 years and over from the fourth KNHANES first year (2007) were used to extract the items included in the questionnaire. The FFQ items were developed by selection of major dishes based on the cumulative contribution rate, between-person variability based on the cumulative R2 of energy and 14 nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorous, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C) and the number of consumers of each dish. In addition, the FFQ items were revised with analysis of 24-hour recall data of the fourth KNHANES second and third year (2008, 2009). Finally, 112 items were included in the FFQ and grouped as follows: rice (5 items), noodles and dumplings (6), breads and rice cakes (8), soups and stews (12), soybeans, eggs, meat and fish (23), vegetables, seaweed and potatoes (27), milk and dairy products (4), fruits (13), beverages (5), snacks (6) and alcoholic beverages (3). The food items of FFQ accounted for an average of 87.0% of energy and 14 nutrient intakes and also accounted for 81.7% of the between-person variability. The frequency range of the FFQ items was classified into nine categories (never or seldom, once per month, 2-3 times per month, once per week, 2-4 times per week, 5-6 times per week, once per day, twice per day and three times per day) and the portion size was divided into three categories (small, medium and large). We expect that this developed dish-based FFQ could be used in assessment of long-term dietary intakes of Korean adults.

Keywords: food frequency questionnaire; development; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


Fig. 1
Diagram to develop food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) items.
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Table 1
Age distribution and nutrient intakes of subjects in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)
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Table 2
Number of selected dishes for composing of food frequency questionnaire
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Table 3
List of food items and 1 unit of food frequency questionnaire
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Table 4
Cumulative contribution rate and between person variability based cumulative R2 of energy and 14 nutrient intakes by food items of food frequency questionnaire1)
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