Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.45(6) > 1043957

Korean J Nutr. 2012 Dec;45(6):511-521. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2012.
© 2012 The Korean Nutrition Society
Physical activity level, total daily energy expenditure, and estimated energy expenditure in normal weight and overweight or obese children and adolescents
Myung Hee Kim and Eun Kyung Kim
Department of Food and Nutrition, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-742, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received September 03, 2012; Revised October 06, 2012; Accepted October 22, 2012.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purposes of this study were to assess the physical activity level (PAL) and the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) as well as to evaluate the validity of prediction equation for the estimated energy requirement (EER) in normal weight and overweight or obese children and adolescents. The subjects comprised of 100 healthy Korean students aged between 7-18. The anthropometric data was collected. PAL was calculated from the physical activity diary by the 24-hour recall method, and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by an open-circuit indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood system. Daily energy expenditure was PAL multiplied by RMR. EER was calculated by using the prediction equation published in KDRIs. There was no significant difference in the means of age and height between the 46 obese subjects and 54 nonobese subjects. The weight and BMI of the obese group (60.2 kg, 25.3 kg/m2) were significantly higher than those of the nonobese group (42.4 kg, 18.4 kg/m2). However, PAL was not significantly different between the two groups (nonobese 1.45, obese 1.46). TEE of the obese group (2,212 kcal/day) was significantly higher than that of the nonobese group (1,774 kcal/day). EER (individual PA) and EER (light PA) were significantly higher than TEE (p < 0,001); however, EER (sedentary PA) was not significantly different with TEE in the two groups. These results showed that the levels of physical activity were the same as the sedentary activity both in the nonobese and obese Korean students; moreover, the predictive equation for EER published in KDRI overestimated the TEE of Korean children and adolescents. Therefore, in further research, a new predictive equation for EER should be developed for Korean children and adolescents through the doubly labeled water method.

Keywords: physical activity level; total energy expenditure; estimated energy requirement; children and adolescents; obesity


Fig. 1
Bland-Altman plots for estimated energy requirement (EER) and measured total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in normal weight (○) and overweight or obese (●) children and adolescents.
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Table 1
Physical activity categories according to the level of intensity
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Table 2
Distribution of the subjects
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Table 3
Anthropometric measurements of the subjects
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Table 4
The time spent on each activity by the physical activity categories [Unit: min (%)]
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Table 5
Physical activity level (PAL)2) among the subjects
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Table 6
Correlation between the time spent by 18 activity types and physical activity level (PAL) after controlling for gender and age
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Table 7
The comparison of daily energy expenditure (TEE) and estimated energy requirement (EER) for the normal weight and overweight or obese children and adolescents (Unit: kcal/day)
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This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0004472).

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