Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.45(5) > 1043951

Korean J Nutr. 2012 Oct;45(5):452-461. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2012.
© 2012 The Korean Nutrition Society
Increased whole grain, fruits and vegetable intake reduced oxidative stress in high school students
So Hyeon Kim,1 Sang Woon Cho,1 Seong Su Hwang,2 Mijung Ahn,3 Dukhee Lee,4 Seung Wan Kang,5 and Yoo Kyoung Park1
1Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea.
2Deagu Medical Center, Deagu 703-713, Korea.
3Department of Nutrition, Deagu Medical Center, Deagu 703-713, Korea.
4Department of Preventive Medicine and Health Promotion Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
5Institute of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-810, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received May 26, 2012; Revised June 18, 2012; Accepted August 11, 2012.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important for the prevention of chronic disease. Especially, phytonutrients in fruits and vegetables have been recognized as major contributors for the decreased level of oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of switching the dietary habit to high consumption of fruits and vegetables were evaluated on the parameters of serum antioxidant status in healthy high school students. Forty one students participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to the control group (n = 18) or the intervention group (n = 23). The intervention group was provided for 8 weeks with the main food source being whole grain and vegetables. Anthropometric measurements, blood parameters and dietary intakes were measured, and compared before and after study. After 8 weeks, weight and BMI were significantly decreased in the intervention group (p = 0.000). The serum diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test resulted in a significantly decreased level only in the intervention group (p < 0.05) after 8 weeks, but serum biological antioxidant potential (BAP) was increased significantly in both groups (p < 0.001). Intake of energy, total fat, cholesterol and sodium in the intervention group were significantly decreased after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). Also, the intervention group had significantly increased vitamin and phytonutrient intakes of all-trans-β-carotene, α-carotene, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and total phenols (p < 0.05). Overall, the results of this study suggest that whole grain, fruits, and vegetables supplementation showed improvement of the adolescent health.

Keywords: phytochemical-rich diet; antioxidant status; intervention; adolescent health


Fig. 1
Study flow diagram.
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Fig. 2
Comparison of snacking between 0 week and 8 week by food frequency questionnaire in the control and the intervention group. A: Control group. B: Intervention group.
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Table 1
Comparison of anthropometric measurements between 0 week and 8 week in the control and the intervention group
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Table 2
Comparison of Blood profiles between 0 week and 8 week in the control and the intervention group
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Table 3
Comparison of daily intakes of energy and nutrients estimated from Phytonutrient contents in FFQs between 0 week and 8 week in the control and the intervention group
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Table 4
Comparison of daily intakes of phytochemical nutrients estimated from fruits and vegetable FFQs between 0 week and 8 week in the control and the intervention group
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This study was performed with the support by Hansalim and Daegu Green Consumer Network.

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