Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.45(4) > 1043944

Korean J Nutr. 2012 Aug;45(4):390-399. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2012.
© 2012 The Korean Nutrition Society
Development of a Nutrition Quotient (NQ) equation modeling for children and the evaluation of its construct validity
Hye-Young Kim,1 Sehyug Kwon,2 Jung-Sug Lee,3 Young-Sun Choi,4 Hae Rang Chung,5 Tong-Kyung Kwak,6 Juyeon Park,7 and Myung-Hee Kang8
1Department of Food & Nutrition, Yongin University, Yongin 449-714, Korea.
2Department of Statistics, Hannam University, Daejeon 306-791, Korea.
3FANSA (Food and Nutrition Statistical Analysis), Seoul 153-764, Korea.
4Department of Food & Nutrition, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714, Korea.
5Nutrition for the Future Inc., Seoul 151-848, Korea.
6Department of Food & Nutrition, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea.
7Amway Koera Ltd., Seoul 135-713, Korea.
8Department of Food & Nutrition, Daeduk Valley Campus, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received July 25, 2012; Revised August 05, 2012; Accepted August 10, 2012.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the construct validity of a Nutrition Quotient (NQ) for children. In a previous report (Kang, et al., 2012), the food behavior checklist for children's NQ, consisting of 19 items, was grouped into a 5-factor structure according to the exploratory factor analysis: balance, diversity, moderation, regularity, and practice. In this study, the construct validity of the NQ was assessed using a confirmatory factor analysis. Elementary school students (n = 1,393) from six large cities completed the NQ test. Indicator tests suggested an adequate model fit (goodness of fit index = 0.9613; adjusted GFI = 0.95; standardized root mean square residual = 0.0464; chi-square test statistics of < 0.001 p-value, 82.1), and item loadings were significant for all subscales (p < 0.05). The standardized path coefficients were used as the weights of the items. The NQ and the 5 factor scores of the student were calculated by the obtained weights of the questionnaire items. Logistic regression was applied to find the significant factors in order to affect a specific nutrient status. The receiver operation characteristic curve analyses were performed in order to find diagnostic cut-off points of the five factors. The food behavior checklist for children's NQ would be a handy and suitable instrument for evaluating dietary behaviors of Korean children.

Keywords: nutrition quotient; children; construct validity; dietary behavior


Fig. 1
Comparison of the distribution of NQ and factor scores by quartile between 1st and 2nd student survey.
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Fig. 2
Distribution of the NQ score of the elementary school students (n = 1,393) from the 2nd survey.
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Fig. 3
Percentage of nutrient intake to recommended nutrient intake or adequate intake from the 1st survey 1) Lowest grade: NQ percentile < 10, Low grade: 10 ≤ NQ percentile < 25, Medium grade: 25 ≤ NQ percentile < 75, High grade: 75 ≤ NQ percentile < 90, Highest grade: NQ percentile ≥ 90 2) Different alphabets are significantly different by Duncan's multiple test (p < 0.05).
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Table 1
Path coefficients of LISREL analysis from the 2nd survey and weight assignment of NQ checklist items
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Table 2
NQ score of the elementary school students from the 2nd survey
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Table 3
Correlation coefficient between NQ and each factor score
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Table 4
NQ score range by the 5 grade criterion
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Table 5
Regression coefficients from logistic regression of the 1st survey
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Table 6
Diagnostic statistics by cut-off point of the 5 factors
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This research was supported by a grant from Amway Korea Ltd. in 2011.

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