Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.45(2) > 1043926

Ryu, Yim, Suk, Lee, Ahn, Kim, Park, and Choue: Sugar composition and glycemic indices of frequently consumed fruits in Korea


Fruits are generally recommended for a balanced meal, as they are good sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which may improve blood glucose control. However, fruits have simple sugars with a wide glycemic index (GI) range. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sugar content and composition and to determine the glycemic indices of the most frequently consumed fruits in Korea, including apple, tangerine, pear, water melon, persimmon, grape, oriental melon, and peach. The sugar content and composition of the fruits were analyzed by high performance anion-exchange chromatography (Dinonex model DX-600). The GI of the fruits was measured in 13 healthy subjects (seven females and six males) after permission was received from the University Hospital institutional review board (KHU-IRB 1114-06). The subjects consumed 50 g of glucose as a reference and carbohydrate portions of eight fruits. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after consuming the fruits. The GI values for the fruits were calculated by expressing the increase in the area under the blood glucose response curve for each subject. As a result, the total sugar contents of 100 g fruits were: grape (13.9 g), apple (12.3 g), persimmon (11.9 g), oriental melon (11.2 g), watermelon (9.3 g), tangerine (8.9 g), peach (8.6 g), and pear (8.3 g). The GI values of the fruits were as follows: GI value of peach (56.5 ± 14.17), watermelon (53.5 ± 18.07), oriental melon (51.2 ± 18.14), tangerine (50.4 ± 15.16), grape (48.1 ± 14.05), persimmon (42.9 ± 18.92), pear (35.7 ± 14.38), and apple (33.5 ± 11.92). These findings will help individuals choose fruit for controlling blood sugar.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
High performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC).
Fig. 2
Relative changes of plasma glucose for 2 hours following the fruits intake.
Fig. 3
Relative changes of serum insulin levels for 2 hours following the fruits intake.
Table 1
Composition of sugars of the fruits (g/100 g fruit)

1) Values are Mean ± SD.

Each values are means of 5 samples

Table 2
°Brix and pH of the fruits

1) Values are Mean ± SD. *: Significantly different by Duncan's multiple range test at *p < 0.05 Each values are means of 5 samples

Table 3
Plasma glucose responses after taking the fruits containing 50 g of carbohydrate (mg/dL)(n = 13)

1) Values are Mean ± SD. *: Significantly different by Duncan's multiple range test at *p < 0.05

Table 4
Serum insulin responses after taking the fruits containing 50 g of carbohydrate (µU/mL)(n = 13)

1) Values are Mean ± SD. *: Significantly different by Duncan's multiple range test at *p < 0.05

Table 5
Glycemic and insulin indexs of the fruits

1) Values are Mean ± SD. 2) GI: Glycemic index 3) II: Insulin index 4) Letters with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different at p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test

Values are means of the 13 individuals


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