Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.44(2) > 1043870

Korean J Nutr. 2011 Apr;44(2):152-161. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2011.
© 2011 The Korean Nutrition Society
Secular Trend in Dietary Patterns in a Korean Adult Population, Using the 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Minji Kang,1 Hyojee Joung,2 Jeong Hyun Lim,3 Yeon-Sook Lee,1 and Yoon Ju Song4
1Department of Food & Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
2School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
3Department of Food Service and Nutrition Care, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-799, Korea.
4Major of Food & Nutrition, School of Human Ecology, Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received February 16, 2011; Revised April 12, 2011; Accepted April 15, 2011.


Koreans have undergone many changes in dietary patterns with economic growth. The purpose of this research was to examine changes in dietary patterns using data from the 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study included 21,525 subjects (8,295 from 1998, 6,880 from 2001, and 6,350 from 2005) who were 20 years or older and who participated in a 24-h diet recall. The percentage energy intake from 22 food groups was calculated, and a cluster analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Two dietary patterns emerged; the first pattern was characterized by high intake of white rice, legumes, vegetables, kimchi, and seaweeds, the so-called "traditional" pattern (53%), whereas the other pattern was characterized by high intake of other grains, noodle dumplings, floured bread, pizza, hamburgers, cereals and snacks, potatoes, sugared sweets, nuts, fruits, meat·its products, eggs, fish, milk and dairy products, oils, beverages and seasoning, or the so-called "modified" pattern. The modified pattern comprised a higher proportion of younger aged, metropolitan residents with more education and higher incomes. However, the gender distribution was not significantly different. The modified pattern had a significantly higher intake of all nutrients except carbohydrates and had a higher proportion of energy from fat and protein. No association with a risk for metabolic syndrome was found for either dietary pattern. After age was standardized, the traditional pattern included 52% of the respondents in 1998, 54% in 2001, and 50% in 2005. However, the modified pattern was significantly more prevalent in the younger age group (20-29 yr), whereas the traditional pattern increased significantly in the older age group (≥ 65 yr). In conclusion, a secular trend was found for dietary pattern by age group, suggesting that it is necessary to monitor the changes in dietary pattern by age group and to develop appropriate dietary education and guidelines.

Keywords: dietary pattern; secular trend; KNHANES; cluster analysis


Fig. 1
Secular trends of dietary patterns over three KNHANES population after age-standardization.
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Fig. 2
Secular trends of dietary patterns by age groups. *: P from logistic analysis including gender, region, education level, study year, and income as covariates in each age group.
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Table 1
General characteristics of adult population 20 or more ages from three consecutive KNHANES
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Table 2
Dietary pattern analysis: mean percent energy intake from each food group by cluster analysis using data from three KNHANES
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Table 3
Nutrient intakes of pattern groups by cluster analysis
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Table 4
Socio-demographic characteristics of pattern groups by cluster analysis
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Table 5
Metabolic syndrome and its components by pattern groups
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