Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.43(6) > 1043859

Korean J Nutr. 2010 Dec;43(6):628-637. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2010.  https://doi.org/10.4163/kjn.2010.43.6.628
© 2010 The Korean Nutrition Society
Intakes and Major Food Sources of Vitamins A and E of Korean Adults Living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province
Hyun Hee Noh, Young-Nam Kim and Youn-Ok Cho
Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University, Seoul 132-714, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: yunokcho@duksung.ac.kr )
Received October 21, 2010; Revised November 09, 2010; Accepted November 12, 2010.

Abstract

To determine vitamin A and E intakes and their food sources, dietary intakes were collected by three consecutive 24-hour recalls from 192 adults living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, Korea. The mean vitamin A, retinol and β-carotene intakes were 1240.1 ± 1101.1 µg retinol equivalent/day (693.3 ± 563.2 µg retinol activity equivalent/day), 182.6 ± 149.5 µg/day and 5443.3 ± 6365.5 µg/day, respectively. Only 9.4% of the subjects consumed less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin A. The mean vitamin E intake was 6.03 ± 2.54 mg α-tocopherol equivalent/day. The α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol intakes were 4.83 ± 2.03 and 5.57 ± 3.41 mg/day, respectively. Most of the subjects (93.8%) consumed less than the Korean Adequate Intake for vitamin E. The major food sources of vitamin A were sweet potato, carrot, red pepper powder, spinach, and citrus fruit, and the top 30 foods provided 91.5% of total Plant foods provided 81.0% and animalderived foods 10.5% of the vitamin A intake from the top 30 foods. The major food sources of vitamin E were soybean oil, red pepper powder, Ramyeon (cup noodles), spinach, and egg. The top 30 foods provided 78.0% of total vitamin E intake. Plant foods provided 61.3% and animal-derived foods 15.9% of the vitamin E intake from the top 30 foods. In conclusion, the vitamin A intake of the Korean adults in this study was ge-nerally adequate, but the vitamin E intake of many subjects was inadequate. Therefore, nutritional education may be of benefit to Korean adults to increase their vitamin E intake.

Keywords: vitamin A intake; vitamin E intake; carotenoids; tocopherols; food sources

Figures


Fig. 1
Distribution of the subjects by the World Health Organization BMI cut-offs for Asians.
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Fig. 2
Percentages of Korean adults consuming vitamin A < Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and < US/Canadian DRI. Estimated Average Requirement, EAR: Recommended Intakes, RI: Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA: and Tolerable Upper Intake Level, UL.
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Fig. 3
Percentages of Korean adults consuming vitamin E < Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and < US/Canadian DRI. Estimated Average Requirement, EAR: Recommended Intakes, RI; Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA: and Adequate Intake, AI. None of the subjects consumed vitamin E > Tolerable Upper Intake Level in Korean DRI and US/Canadian DRI.
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Tables


Table 1
General characteristics of the subjects by gender1)
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Table 2
Selected nutrient intakes of the subjects by gender1)
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Table 3
Retinol, carotenoids, and vitamin A intakes of the subjects by gender1)
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Table 4
Major dietary sources of vitamin A (µg retinol equivalent) consumed by the subjects1)
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Table 5
Retinol, carotenoids, and vitamin A intakes of the subjects by gender1)
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Table 6
Major dietary sources of vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol) consumed by the subjects
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Notes

This study was supported by the grant of the 2009 research fund of National Research Foundation of Korea (20090066-047).

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