Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.43(6) > 1043851

Korean J Nutr. 2010 Dec;43(6):561-569. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2010.
© 2010 The Korean Nutrition Society
Antihypertensive Properties of Dried Radish Leaves Powder in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Bo Ram Kim,1 Ji Ho Park,1 Sun-Hee Kim,1 Kang Jin Cho,2 and Moon-Jeong Chang1
1Department of Food & Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702, Korea.
2Department of Functional Food & Nutrition Division, Rural National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon 441-707, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received November 05, 2010; Revised November 15, 2010; Accepted November 25, 2010.


The study aim was to investigate the antihypertensive effect after oral supplementation of dried radish leaves powder (DRLP). Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured by spectrophotometric assay. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive rats (Wistar) by the tail cuff method after a 4-week diet with DRLP at the level of 2.5% or 5%. The supplementation of DRLP decreased SBP of SHR although the 5% supplementation level did not show any more pronounced effect than the 2.5% level did. The decrease in the SBP observed for both 2.5% and 5% DRLP was accompanied by significant increases of the urinary Na and K excretion. The DRLP supplementation showed a potent ACE-inhibitory activity in pulmonary tissue from both hypertensive and normotensive rats. However, the DRLP supplementation did not affect the SBP in normotensive rats. These results indicated that DRLP exerted an antihypertensive effect in SHR due to the decreased ACE activity and increased urinary Na excretion.

Keywords: dried radish leaves powder; blood pressure; angiotensin converting enzyme activities; hypertension


Table 1
Composition of experimental diets
Click for larger image

Table 2
The concentration of total flavonoids and total phenols in dried radish leaves and various fruits (mg/100 g)
Click for larger image

Table 3
Total food intake, initial body weight, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio (FER)
Click for larger image

Table 4
Systolic blood pressure of experimental rats
Click for larger image

Table 5
Effect of dried radish leaves powder on ACE activities
Click for larger image

Table 6
Effect of radish leaf powder on GABA concentration in brain and serum
Click for larger image

Table 7
Effect of radish leaf powder on urine constituent
Click for larger image


This research was supported by 15 agenda research project from Rural Development Administration (project No. PJ0067-062010).

1. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005;365:217–223.
2. Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ. Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002;360:1347–1360.
3. Ministry of Health and Welfare. KHANES IV 2nd year report. 2008. pp. 50.
4. Ames RP. Insights from Laragh's review course: the role of the renin-angiotensin system in blood pressure regulation. Am J Hypertens 2001;15(7 Pt 1):653–654.
5. Saito Y, Nakamura K, Kawato K, Imayasu S. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors in sake and its by-products. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 1992;66:1081–1087.
6. Okamoto A, Hanagata H, Matsumoto E, Kawamura Y, Koizumi Y, Yanagida F. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activities of various fermented foods. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1995;59:1147–1149.
7. Hagiwara Y, Kubo T. γ-Aminobutyric acid in the lateral septal area is involved in mediation of the inhibition of hypothalamic angiotensin II sensitive neurons induced by blood pressure increases in rats. Neurosci Lett 2007;419:242–246.
8. Shonis CA, Waldrop TG. Augmented neuronal acitivity in the hypothalamus of spontaneously rats. Brain Res Bull 1993;30:45–52.
9. Shonis CA, Peano CA, Dillon GH, Waldrop TG. Cardiovascular response to blockade of GABA synthesis in the hypothalamus of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Brain Res Bull 1993;31:493–499.
10. Singewald N, Schneider C, Philippu A. Disturbances in blood pressure homeostasis modify GABA release in the locus coeruleus. Neuroreport 1994;5:1709–1712.
11. Waeber B, Bruner HR. A look through the new therapeutic window: irbesartan. J Hypertens Suppl 1998;16:S11–S16.
12. Luo LF, Wu WH, Zhou YJ, Yan J, Yang GP, Ouyang DS. Antihypertensive effect of eucommia ulmoides oliv. extracts in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;129(2):238–243.
13. Kwan CY. Vascular effects of selected antihypertensive drugs derived from traditional medicinal herbs. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl 1995;22(1):S297–S299.
14. Sutter MC, Wang YX. Recent cardiovascular drugs from Chinese medicinal plants. Cardiovasc Res 1993;27(11):1891–1901.
15. Gillis CN. Panax ginseng pharmacology: A nitric oxide link? Biochem Pharmacol 1997;54(1):1–8.
16. Schmidtlein H, Herrmann K. On phenolic acids of vegetables. I. hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of brassicaspecies and leaves of other cruciferae. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 1975;159(3):139–148.
17. Sgherri C, Cosi E, Navari-Izzo F. Phenols and antioxidative status of raphanus sativus grown in copper excess. Physiol Plant 2003;118(1):21–28.
18. Ku KH, Lee KA, Kim YE. Physiological activity of extracts from radish (raphanus sativus L.) leaves. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37(3):390–395.
19. Han JS, Kim JS, Kim MS, Choi YH, Minamide T, Huh SM. Changes on mineral contents of vegetable by various cooking methods. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 1999;15:382–387.
20. Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Gastrointestinal stimulatory and uterotonic activities of dietary radish leaves extract are mediated through multiple pathways. Phytother Res 2005;19(9):750–755.
21. Gilani AH, Ghayur MN. Pharmacological basis for the gut stimulatory activity of raphanus sativus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95(2-3):169–172.
22. Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Univ Chem Technol Metall 2005;40(3):255–260.
23. Chun OK, Chung SJ, Song WO. Estimated dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of U.S. adults. J Nutr 2007;137(5):1244–1252.
24. Neels HM, van Sande ME, Scharpe SL. Sensitive colorimetric assay for angiotensin converting enzyme in serum. Clin Chem 1983;29(7):1399–1403.
25. Clarke G, O'Mahony S, Malone G, Dinan TG. An isocratic high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of GABA and glutamate in discrete regions of the rodent brain. J Neurosci Methods 2007;160(2):223–230.
26. Vermeij TA, Edelbroek PM. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pregabalin, gabapectin and vigabatrin in human serum by precolumn derivatization with o-phataldialdehyde and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2004;810(2):297–303.
27. Lee HS, Chang MJ, Kim SH. Effects of poly-γ-glutamic acid o serum and brain concentrations of glutamate and GABA in diet-induced obese rats. Nutr Res Pract 2010;4(1):23–29.
28. Peach MJ. Renin-angiotensin system: biochemistry and mechanisms of action. Physiol Rev 1977;57(2):313–370.
29. Soubrier F, Wei L, Hubert C, Clauser E, Alhenc-Gelas F, Corvol P. Molecular biology of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme: II. Structure-function. Gene polymorphism and clinical implications. J Hypertens 1993;11(6):599–604.
30. de Gasparo M, Catt KJ, Inagami T, Wright JW, Unger TH. International Union of pharmacology. XXIII. The angiotensin receptors. Pharmacol Rev 2000;52:415–472.
31. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension 2003;42(6):1206–1252.
32. Endemann D, Touyz Rm, Li JS, Deng LY, Schiffrin EL. Altered angiotensin II-induced small artery contraction during the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens 1999;12(7):716–723.
33. Remuzzi G, Perico N, Macia M, Ruggenenti P. The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2005;(99):S57–S65.
34. Azizi M, Webb R, Nussberger J, Hollenberg NK. Renin inhibition with aliskiren: where are we now, and where are we going? J Hypertens 2006;24(2):243–256.
35. Arendshorst WJ, Chatziantoniou C, Daniels FH. Role of angiotensin in the renal vasoconstriction observed during the development of genetic hypertension. Kidney Int Suppl 1990;30:S92–S96.
36. Correa FMA, Viswanathan M, CIUFFO GM, Tsutsumi K, Saavedra JM. Kidney angiotensin II receptors and converting enzyme in neonatal and adult wistar-kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Peptides 1995;16(1):19–24.
37. Niwa A, Israel A, Saavedra JM. Pindolol decreases plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in young spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1985;110(1):133–136.
38. Dillon GH, Shonis CA, Waldrop TG. Hypothalamic GABAergic modulation of respiratory responses to baroreceptor stimulation. Respir Physiol 1991;85(3):289–304.
39. DiMicco JA, Abshire VM. Evidence of GABAergic inhibition of a hypothalamic sympathoexcitatory mechanism in anesthetized rats. Brain Res 1987;402:1–10.
40. Hagiwara Y, Kubo T. γ-Aminobutyric acid in the lateral septal area is involved in mediation of the inhibition of hypothalamic angiotensin II-sensitive neurons induced by blood pressure increases in rats. Neurosci Lett 2007;419(3):242–246.
41. Adachi N, Tomonaga S, Tachibana T, Denbow DM, Furuse M. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates acute stress responses through GABAergic system in the brain. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;531(1-3):171–175.
42. Qian ZN, Song LH, Gu ZL, Chen BQ, Zhang KP, Li Hz, Peng YK. An experimental observation on the diuretic effect of an extract of Luobuma (Apocynum 6enetum) leaves. Zhong Yao Tong Bao 1988;13(10):44–46.
43. Kim D, Yokozawa T, Hattori M, Kadota S, Namba T. Effects of aqueous extracts of Apocynum 6enetum leaves on spontaneously hypertensive, renal hypertensive and NaCl-fed-hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72(1-2):53–59.
44. Jouad H, Lacaille-Dubois MA, Lyoussi B, Eddouks M. Effects of the flavonoids extracted from Spergularia purpurea Pers. on arterial blood pressure and renal function in normal and hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76(2):159–163.