Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.42(4) > 1043765

Korean J Nutr. 2009 Jun;42(4):350-357. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2009.
© 2009 The Korean Nutrition Society
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Salt Reduction Program for Employees
Hyun-Hee Kim,1 Eun-Kyung Shin,1 Hye-Jin Lee,2 Nan-Hee Lee,3 Byung-Yeol Chun,4 Moon-Young Ahn,5 and Yeon-Kyung Lee1
1Department of Food Science and Nutritio, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
2Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance, Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Seoul 122-701, Korea.
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyungsan 712-702, Korea.
4Health Promotion Research Center in Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
5Public Health and Hygiene Division, Daegu Metropolitan City, Daegu 700-714, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received March 19, 2009; Revised May 06, 2009; Accepted May 11, 2009.


The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of a salt reduction education program. Subjects participating in this study were 251 employees (166 in the "educated" group, 85 in the "non-educated" group) at 8 hospital and industry food service operations in Daegu. After the salt reduction education program was carried out, a salty taste assessment of both groups was conducted. The educated group had statistically significant differences and the noneducated group did not have statistically significant differences. In terms of nutrition knowledge, while the nutrition knowledge of the educated group was increased (p < 0.001), that of the non-educated group rose at a rate of 0.92. In terms of dietary attitude, the educated group exhibited increased preference toward less salty foods when compared to the noneducated group (p < 0.001). Regarding dietary behavior, the score of the educated group was improved (p < 0.001), thereby indicating a preference for less salty taste. This means that nutrition education had influence on dietary behavior. However, after education, sodium excretion for the educated group was not significantly decreased, compared to before education. The results show that there was a positive correlation between salty taste assessment and dietary attitude and behavior for a high-salt diet. There was a positive relationship between attitude for a high-salt diet and sodium intake; when people prefere a more salty taste, they eat more sodium. Therefore, in order to change dietary preference away from salty taste and to decrease sodium intake, a nationwide, systematic and continuous salt reduction education program is needed.

Keywords: salt reduction programs; salty taste assessment; high-salt diet; nutrition knowledge


Table 1
Anthropometric measurements of the subjects
Click for larger image

Table 2
Descriptive statistics of the education and non-education group N (%)
Click for larger image

Table 3
Changes of salty taste assessment between non-education group and education group by salt reduction program N (%)
Click for larger image

Table 4
The effects of nutrition education by salt reduction program
Click for larger image

Table 5
Changes of salt intake by pretest and posttest
Click for larger image

Table 6
Correlation between salty taste assessment and monthly income, frequency of eating out, and expenditure of eating out
Click for larger image

Table 7
Correlation between salty taste assessment and nutrition knowledge, high-salt dietary behavior, high-salt dietary attitudes and Na intake (n = 166)
Click for larger image


This research was supported by the National Health Promotion Fund.

1. Choi HM. In: Nutrition. Seoul: Kyomunsa Co.; 2000. pp. 301.
2. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea health and nutrition examination survey. 2007.
3. Yoon YO, Kim ES, Ro HK. Sodium intakes of some industrial workers. Korean J Nutr 1990;23(1):37–43.
4. Son SM, Huh GY, Lee HS. Development and evaluation of validity of dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) and short DFQ using Na index for estimation of habitual sodium intake. Korean J Community Nutrition 2005;10(5):677–692.
5. Son SM, Park YS, Lim HJ, Kim SB, Jeong YS. Sodium intakes of Korean adults with 24-hour urine analysis and dish frequency questionnaire and comparison of sodium intakes according to the regional area and dish group. Korean J Community Nutrition 2007;12(5):545–558.
6. Lee YK, Son SM, Lee JJ, Lee HJ, Shin EK, Park MJ. In: A study on a scheme to reduce sodium intake, report of management center for health promotion. 2007.
7. Moskowitz HR. Taste and food technology: Acceptability, aesthetics and preference. In: Carterette EC, Friedman MP, editors. Handbook of perception. 9 eds. Vol. VIA, Testing and smelling. New York: Academic Press; 1978. pp. 154-194.
8. Ben-Aryeh H, Schiller M, Shasha S, Szargel R, Gutman D. Salivary composition in patients with essential hypertension and the effect of pindolol. J Oral Med 1981;36:76–78.
9. Mattes RD. Salt taste and hypertension: a critical review of the literature. J Chron Dis 1984;37(3):195–208.
10. Dahl LK. Salt intake and salt need. N Engl J Med 1958;258:1152–1157.
11. Gillum RF, Prineas RJ, Anderson P, Kebede J. Lake of response of salt taste threshold and preference to dietary sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Am Heart J 1981;102:138.
12. Bertino M, Beauchamp GK, Riskey DR, Engelman K. Long-term reduction in dietary sodium alters the taste of salt. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:1134–1144.
13. Bertino M, Beauchamp GK, Riskey DR, Engelman K. Taste perception in three individuals on a low sodium diet. Appetite 1981;2:67–73.
14. Kim YS, Paik HY. Measurement of Na intake in Korean adult females. Korean J Nutr 1987;20(5):341–349.
15. Chobanian AV, Hill M. National heart, lung, and blood institute workshop on sodium and blood pressure: a critical review of current scientific evidence. Hypertension 2000;35(4):858–863.
16. Cho MK. In: Development of education materials for lowing sodium intake and analysis of educational effects for elementary students. Changwon: Changwon National University; 2007.
[MS Thesis].
17. Jung YY. In: Development and evaluation of salt reduction nutrition education program for elementary school students. Daegu: Kyungpook National University; 2009.
[MS Thesis].
18. Shin EK, Lee HJ, Jun SY, Park EJ, Jung YY. Development and evaluation of nutrition education program for sodium reduction in foodservice operations. Korean J Community Nutrition 2008;13(2):216–227.
19. Nancy RC, Jeffrey AC, Eva O, Julie EB, Kathryn MR, Shiriki KK, Lawrence JA, Paul KW. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007;334(7599):885–892.
20. Management center for daegu metropolitan city health promotion. Salt reduction center.
21. Shin EK, Lee HJ, Ahn MY, Lee YK. Study on the development and evaluation of validity of salty taste assessment tool. Korean J Nutr 2008;41(2):184–191.
22. Bartoshuk LM. The psychophysics of taste. Am J Clin Nutr 1968;31:69–72.
23. Bartoshuk LM. NaCl taste thresholds in man: thresholds for water taste or NaCl taste? J Comp Physiol 1974;87:310–325.
24. Son SM, Huh GY, Lee HS. Development and evaluation of validity of dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) and short DFQ using Na index for estimation of habitual sodium intake. Korean J Community Nutrition 2005;10(5):677–692.
25. Son SM, Park YS, Lim WJ, Kim SB, Jeong YS. Development and evaluation of validity of short dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) for estimation of habitual sodium intake for Korean adults. Korean J Community Nutrition 2007;12(6):838–853.
26. Willet WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Reproducibility and validity of semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122(1):51–65.
27. Watson RL, Langford Hg. Usefulness of overnight urines in population groups. Am J Clin Nutr 1970;23:290–304.
28. Chung HR. Policy approaches to reduce sodium intake of the public. Korean J Community Nutrition 2002;7(3):405–409.
29. Yim KS. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a nutrition education program for hypertensive at the community level. Korean J Community Nutrition 2000;5(4):654–661.
30. Jeong MH. In: A study on the sodium intakes by 24-hour urine analysis of adults in the jeonbuk province. Jeonju: Chonbuk National University; 2007.
[MS Thesis].
31. Yim JE, Cho MR, Yin CS, Seo BK, Koh HG, Choue RW. Nutrients and salt consumption of hypertension patients according to treatment status. Korean J Nutr 2005;38(9):706–716.
32. Lee HS. Studies on salt intake through eat-out foods in andong area. Korean J Soc Food Sci 1997;13(3):314–318.
33. Yetley EA, Roderuck C. Nutritional knowledge and health goals of young spouses. J Am Diet Assoc 1980;77(1):31–41.
34. Ann IS, Lee YM, Moon SJ. A Study on the dietary behavior in middle- aged women. J Korean Home Econ 1988;26(1):43–49.
35. Briley ME. The determinants of food choices of the elderly. J Nutr Elderly 1989;9(1):39–45.
36. Ackerman GL. Increased calcium excretion after saline administration to hypertension subjects. J Lab Clin Med 1971;77:298–307.
37. Shortt C, Madden A, Flynn A, Morrissey PA. Influence of dietary sodium intake on urinary calcium excretion in selected Irish individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988;42:595–603.
38. Zakradas M, Reyburn RG, Marliss EB, Block E, Mackey MA. Sodium chloride supplementation and urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:1088–1094.
39. Yu KH, Kong YA, Yoon JS. A study on dietary factors, urinary levels of Ca, Na and the bone status of women in urban and rural areas. Korean J Community Nutrition 1996;1(1):71–78.
40. Kwak EH, Lee SL, Lee HS, Kwun IS. Relation dietary and urinary Na, K, and Ca level to blood pressure in elderly people in rural area. Korean J Nutr 2003;36(1):75–82.
41. Choe M, Kim JD. A study on correlation between blood pressure and Na, K intakes pattern in the family members of normal and hypertension patients. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1996;25(6):1045–1049.