Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.42(4) > 1043762

Oh, Yoon, Cho, and Yoon: Vitamin A and Vitamin E Status of Diabetic Patients and Normal Adults in Korea


We evaluated the vitamin A and E status of type 2 diabetic patients and normal adults living in Daegu area. Dietary intakes for two non-consecutive days were measured by 24-hour recall method for 76 diabetic patients and 72 normal adults. Plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol were measured using HPLC method. Dietary intakes of vitamin A were not significantly different between the diabetic and the normal adults. However, the diabetic patients had significantly lower vitamin E intakes than the normal adults. Major food sources for vitamin A intake were red pepper powder and carrot. Half of the subjects from diabetic as well as normal adults consumed less than estimated average requirement of vitamin A. Plasma levels of retinol and tocopherol were maintained within normal ranges for most of the subjects regardless of diabetic status. Dietary intake of vitamin A was associated with vitamin E intake, however, there was no significant correlations between vitamin E intake and plasma α-tocopherol levels. It seems that diabetic patients should try to increase dietary intake of vitamin E, as prolonged lower-level intake of vitamin E could eventually lead to vitamin E depletion. Further studies are needed to identify the magnitude of dietary variance at individual and seasonal levels, and to understand the discrepancies in dietary intake and plasma levels before establishing the dietary reference intake based on Korean dietary pattern.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
General characteristics of subjects
Table 2
Anthropometric characteristics of the study subjects

Values are means ± SD

1) BMI: Body Mass Index

Table 3
Dietary Intakes of Vitamin A, E and C by the study subjects

Values are means ± SD

*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001 by t-test

Table 4
Proportion of the study subjects with insufficient dietary intake

1) Proportion of subjects with dietary intake less than EAR of vitamin A

2) Proportion of subjects with dietary intake less than 75% AI of vitamin E

3) Proportion of subjects with dietary intake less than EAR of vitamin C

Table 5
Major food items of vitamin A intake
Table 6
Major food items for vitamin E intake
Table 7
Plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol in diabetic patients and normal adults

Values are means ± SD

Table 8
Plasma retinol level by Vitamin A intake status

Values are means ± SD

Low Vit A: subjects with vitamin A intake < EAR of vitamin A

High Vit A: subjects with vitamin A intake > EAR of vitamin A

Table 9
Plasma tocopherol level by Vitamin E intake status

Values are means ± SD

Low Vit E: subjects with vitamin E intake < 75% AI of vitamin E

High Vit E: subjects with vitamin E intake > 75% AI of vitamin E

Table 10
Relationships among dietary intakes and plasma levels of retinol and tocopherol

*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.001 by Pearson's corelation


This research was supported by a 2003 research grant of Ministry of Health and Welfare (03-PJ1-PG3-22000-0024).


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