Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.42(2) > 1043747

Korean J Nutr. 2009 Mar;42(2):146-157. Korean.
Published online March 31, 2009.
© 2009 The Korean Nutrition Society
Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables Intake for Prevention of Chronic Disease in Korean Adults Aged 30 Years and Over: Using the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III), 2005
Jung Hyun Kwon,* Jae Eun Shim,** Min Kyung Park,* and Hee Young Paik*,**
*Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
**Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received December 16, 2008; Revised February 05, 2009; Accepted February 09, 2009.


Korean diet is high in plant foods but also high in salted vegetables. World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommends consumption of fruits and vegetables excluding salted vegetables for prevention cancer. This study aimed to analyze relations between intakes of salted and non-salted vegetables and socioeconomic factors, providing a data for targeted groups in promotion of fruits and vegetables consumption. Dietary and socioeconomic status data of the 5,400 subjects over 30 years of age from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANESIII) were used. Dietary intake data from KNHANESIII was obtained by one day 24-hour recall method. Mean daily intakes of salted vegetables, non-salted vegetables and fruits of subjects were 151 g, 237 g, and 71 g respectively. Mean daily intake of salted vegetables was significantly higher in men than women for daily amount (173 g vs. 133 g) as well as percentage of total food intake (9.9% vs. 9.6%). Subjects living in rural area consumed more salted vegetables. Salted vegetables as percent of total food were lower in subjects with higher education levels (p < 0.001). Intakes of non-salted vegetables were significantly affected by age and gender. Intake levels of fruit were significantly higher in younger groups, in females, and subjects with higher income and education levels (p < 0.05). Average intake of fruits and non-salted vegetables was 307 g, lower than WCRF recommended level of 400 g for personal guideline. Intake of salted vegetables was positively correlated with sodium intake (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.43) but less so with potassium (r = 0.16) and other micronutrients intake (r < 0.1). On the other hand, non-salted vegetables had higher correlations with potassium (r = 0.45), carotene (r = 0.38), vitamin A (r = 0.37), iron (r = 0.34) and low for sodium (r = 0.13). Fruits intake was highly correlated with vitamin C intake (r = 0.46). Proportion of subjects satisfying WCRF personal guideline of fruits and non-salted vegetables was 25.7%. Results of this study indicate that intake of salted vegetable is considerably high among Koreans, and it is highly correlated with sodium intake and less so with other micronutrients.

Keywords: fruits; vegetables; dietary intake; socioeconomic; adults


Fig. 1
Distribution of subjects by fruits and non-salted vegetables intake.
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Table 1
General characteristics of study subjects
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Table 2
Fruits and vegetables intake by socioeconomics status (g/day)
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Table 3
Proportions of fruits and vegetables to total food intake by socioeconomic status (%)
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Table 4
Pearson's correlation coefficients of fruits & vegetables intake with energy and nutrients intake1)
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Table 5
Proportions of persons with intake level satisfying individual guideline of WCRF1)2)
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Table 6
Proportion of each macronutrients to total energy intake and nutrition density of micronutrients by fruits and vegetables intake level1)
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