Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.21(6) > 1038561

Kim, Woo, Lee, Lee, and Lee: Application and the Effect of Nutrition Education Program Based on the Social Cognitive Theory Among Middle School Girls



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrition education using materials based on social cognitive theory. Education topics focused on improving health-related and dietary self-awareness and behavior capability in adolescents.


Participants were recruited from a middle school for girls; 67 students (educated group, n=34 and control group, n=33) participated. The education group received 12 lessons in club activity class. Self-administered surveys were conducted for each group before and after the nutrition education program. The questionnaires consisted of variables such as self-efficacy, outcome expectation, outcome expectancy, knowledge, and dietary practices based on the social cognitive theory. Education satisfaction was evaluated using a five-point Likert scale for two sections: a) teaching and learning and b) education results. The data were analyzed using a t-test and Chi Square-test (significance level: p < 0.05).


In the education group, post-education, there were significant differences in self-efficacy (p < 0.05), knowledge (p < 0.01), and dietary practices (p < 0.05), whereas outcome expectation and expectancy did not show any significant differences. None of the variables showed any significant differences in the control group. Educational satisfaction scores were 4.38 ± 0.12 (teaching and learning) and 4.14 ± 0.15 (education results).


This study showed that improving adolescent's awareness and behavior capability has a positive effect on their dietary practices. Moreover, this study suggested that a theory-based determinant should be considered to improve dietary behavior among adolescents.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Nutrition education strategies, goals and activities based on the social cognitive theory


1) SCT: Social cognitive theory

Table 2

Characteristics of the study subject groups


1) N (%)

Table 3

Comparison self-efficacy between groups


1) P1: independent t-test between Pre-test and Post-test

2) PΔ: paired t-test for changes in parameters between educated group and control group

3) Mean±SE, 4 Likert (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3= agree, 4= strongly agree)

4) NS: No significance

Table 4

Comparison outcome expectation and outcome expectancies between groups


1) P1: independent t-test between Pre-test and Post-test

2) PΔ: paired t-test for changes in parameters between educated group and control group

3) Mean±SE, 4 Likert (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=agree, 4=strongly agree)

4) NS: No significance

Table 5

Comparison nutrition knowledge between groups


1) P1: paired t-test between Pre-test and Post-test

2) PΔ: paired t-test for changes in parameters between educated group and control group

3) Mean±SE, Total score: 22 (0=wrong answer, 1=right answer; food choice score-10; intake control score-5; meal plan score-3; meal preparation score-4)

4) NS: No significance

Table 6

Comparison of dietary practice between groups


1) P1: independent t-test between Pre-test and Post-test

2) PΔ: paired t-test for changes in parameters between educated group and control group

3) Mean±SE, (5 Likert; 1=never, 2=hardly, 3=sometimes, 4=usually, 5=always)

4) NS: No significance

Table 7

Nutrition education satisfaction in the educated group


1) 5 Likert (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=Normal, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree)


This research was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (14162MFDS130).


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Kyung-Hea Lee

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