Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.21(3) > 1038546

Korean J Community Nutr. 2016 Jun;21(3):284-292. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2016.
Copyright © 2016 The Korean Society of Community Nutrition
Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolic Biochemical Markers and Diet Quality Index-International(DQI-I) in Postmenopausal Obese Women
Yeonah Jeong,1,2 Misung Kim,2 Saeron Shin,3 Ahreum Han,3 Geomsuk Seo,4 and Cheongmin Sohn2
1Department of Nutrition Services, Wonkwnag University Hospital, Iksan, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea.
3Department of Family Medicine, Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan, Korea.
4Department of Internal Medicine, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan, Korea.

Corresponding author: Cheongmin Sohn. Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea. Tel: (063) 850-6656, Fax: (063) 850-7301, Email:
Received June 13, 2016; Revised June 22, 2016; Accepted June 22, 2016.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study compared the differences of postmenopausal women's bone mineral density in relation to the degree of obesity, metabolism index and dietary factors that affect bone mineral density.


The subjects included in the study are 39 postmenopausal women of normal weight with body mass index less than 25 kg/m2 and 32 postmenopausal who are obese. Anthropometry and biochemical analysis were performed and nutrient intakes and DQI-I were assessed.


Normal weight women were 56.03 ± 3.76 years old and obese women were 58.09 ± 5.13 years old and there was no significant difference in age between the two groups. The T-score of bone mineral density was 0.03 ± 1.06 in normal weight women and −0.60 ± 1.47 in obese women and this was significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Blood Leptin concentration was significantly lower in normal weight women (6.09 ± 3.37 ng/mL) compared to obese women in (9.01 ± 4.99 ng/mL) (p<0.05). The total score of diet quality index-international was 70.41±9.34 in normal weight women and 64.93 ± 7.82 in obese women (p<0.05). T-score of bone mineral density showed negative correlations with percentage of body fat (r = −0.233, p=0.05), BMI (r = −0.197, p=0.017), triglyceride (r = −0.281, p=0.020) and leptin (r = −0.308, p=0.011). The results of multiple regression analysis performed as the method of entry showed that with 22.0% of explanation power, percentage of body fat (β =−0.048, p<0.05), triglyceride (β=−0.005, p<0.05) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.034, p<0.01), moderation of DQI-I (β=−0.231, p<0.05) affected T-score significantly.


The results of the study showed that obese women have less bone density than those with normal weight women. In addition, the factor analysis result that affect bone mineral density showed that intake of fat is a very important factor. Therefore, postmenopausal women need to maintain normal weight and manage blood lipid levels within normal range. They also need to take various sources of protein and reduce consumption of empty calorie foods that have high calories, fat, cholesterol and sodium.

Keywords: bone mineral density; bone metabolic markers; diet quality index-international; postmenopausal; obesity


Table 1
Comparison of anthropometric measurements
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Table 2
Comparison of biochemical indices of subjects
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Table 3
Comparison of bone mineral density of subjects
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Table 4
Nutrient intakes compared to 1,000 kcal energy intake
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Table 5
Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I)
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Table 6
Correlation of bone mineral density (T-score) with related anthropometric and biochemical index
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Table 7
Correlation of bone mineral density (T-score) with related Diet Quality Index-International
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Table 8
Multiple regression analysis on bone mineral density (T-score) by anthropometric and biochemical index and Diet Quality Index-International
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This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (project no.: NRF- 2012R1A1A3012499).

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