Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.21(2) > 1038539

Kwon, Lee, Lee, and Lee: Study on Energy and Nutrient Intake and Food Preference of the Elderly in Care Facilities



The purpose of this study was to assess energy and nutritional intake and investigate the preference for food and cooking methods of the residents in elderly care facilities.


Data were collected from 72 residents (10 males and 62 females) aged ≥ 70 years in elderly care facilities using questionnaires, food photographs for estimating dietary intake and records for daily physical activity.


Average age of the study participants was 85.0 years and 41, 36 and 8 had dementia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, respectively. 15%, 65% and 19% of subjects were physically mobile, enervated, and immobile, respectively. Daily energy intake was 1360.2 kcal in men and 1378.0 kcal in women, which were 68.0% and 86.1% of the estimated energy requirement (EER) of dietary reference intake for Koreans (KDRI) for ≥ 75 year old individuals, respectively. Estimated energy expenditure (EEE) of subjects calculated using formula from KDRI was 1361.9 kcal and EER calculated using estimated daily physical activity (EDPA) was 1232.9 kcal. Energy intake and EEE from KDRI were higher than EER from EDPA. Dietary intake of dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, zinc, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin C were lower, and protein, phosphorous, iron, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin E were higher than the corresponding ones of KDRI. Subjects liked meats, fishes and shellfish, and fruits, while subjects disliked milk, seaweeds and salted fish and salted vegetables. Cooked rice, soybean paste soup, beef, cooked sliced radish strip, and yogurt were favorite foods, with steam being a favorite cooking method. Subjects considered nutrition as the most important factor for improving food service quality.


Results of this study could be utilized for improving food-service for the residents in elderly care facilities, and provide a basis for setting reference intake of energy and nutrients of the elderly having very low activity levels.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

General characteristics of the study subjects


1) student's t test

2) One-way ANOVA

3) Values with different alphabets in each row are significantly different at α=0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test

4) N (%)

5) Chi-square test

Table 2

Energy and nutrient intakes and estimated energy expenditures of study subjects


1) Consumed nutrients /Dietary reference intake for Koreans age of 70 and more

2) Student's t test

3) One-way ANOVA

4) Values with different alphabets in each row are significantly different at α=0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test

5) Estimated energy expenditure from Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans

6) Estimated energy requirement from estimated daily physical activity

Table 3

Comparison of consumed energy, estimated energy expenditure and requirement


1) Paired t-test

2) Pearson correlation coefficient

3) Estimated energy expenditure from Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans

4) Estimated energy requirement from estimated daily physical activity

Table 4

Study subject's demands for food service


1) Chi-square test

2) N (%)

Table 5

Favorite food groups prefer to eat more frequently


1) Chi-square test, 2) N (%)

Table 6

Favorite foods of subjects in cooked rice and soups


1) Chi-square test, 2) N (%)

Table 7

Favorite foods of subjects in meat, fish and cooking methods for meat and fish


1) Chi-square test

2) N (%)

Table 8

Favorite foods of subjects in vegetables, seaweeds and other food items


1) Chi-square test

2) N (%)

Table 9

Demands for improving quality of food service


1) Chi-square test

2) N (%)


This research was supported by a grant from Love and Good Deed (2014).


1. Statistics Korea. Annual report on the Statistics for elderly [internet]. 2014. cited 2014 Jun 19. Available from:
2. Shahar D, Shai I, Vardi H, Fraser D. Dietary intake and eating patterns of elderly people in Israel: who is at nutritional risk? Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57(1):18–25.
3. Kwak KS, Bae YJ, Kim MH. Nutritional status and dietary quality in the low-income elderly residing at home or in health care facilities. J Korean Diet Assoc. 2008; 14(4):337–350.
4. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea center for disease control and prevention. 2013 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey [internet]. 2014. cited 2014 Dec 22. Available from:
5. Long Term Care Insurance. Insurance benefit in-home service [internet]. 2010. cited 2010 Aug 22. Available from:
6. Sunwoo D. An improvement plan for the government policy on long-term care insurance. Health Welf Policy Forum. 2010; 10(168):16–24.
7. Han HY. A study on the satisfaction degree of elderly care facilities and long-term care service -focused on Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi. [master's thesis]. Hanyang University;2013.
8. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Guideline for social welfare service for the elderly [internet]. 2012. cited 2012 Jul 12. Available from:
9. Kim WY, Ahn SY, Song YS. The nutritional status and intervention effects of multivitamin-mineral supplementation in nursing-home residents in Korea. Korean J Community Nutr. 2000; 5(2):201–207.
10. Yoon MO, Moon HK, Jeon JY, Sohn CM. Nutritional management by dietitian at elderly nursing homes in Gyeonggido. J Korean Diet Assoc. 2013; 19(4):400–415.
11. Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Long-term care, health and welfare services for the elderly [internet]. 2012. cited 2012 Jan 30. Available from:
12. National Institute on Aging. Health eating after 50 [internet]. 2012. cited 2012 Jan 30. Available from:
13. Han HK, Choi SS, Kim MW, Lee SD. Food habits and nutritional status of the long-lived elderly people in Ganghwagun area. Korean J Community Nutr. 2005; 10(1):101–110.
14. Yoon HJ, Lee HK, Lee SK. The health status and nutrient intakes of elderly female in Daegu area. Korean J Community Nutr. 2007; 12(1):50–57.
15. Lee MS. Nutritional status of the oldest-elderly population in Sunchang county. Korean J Community Nutr. 2009; 14(3):255–265.
16. Kwak CS, Cho JH, Yon M, Park SC. Anthropometric index, dietary habits and nutrient intake of the oldest-old population aged 95 and over living in Seoul. Korean J Community Nutr. 2012; 17(5):603–622.
17. Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), Nongshim. In-depth Analsyis on Eating Habits and Health Status of Present and Future Consumer - based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV and V) data. KHIDI;2012. Dec. Report No. Private Sector-Nutrition-2012-67.
18. Lee KH, Park JR, Seo JS. Nutritional status of the elderly living in a private silver town of Busan metropolitan city, Korea. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr. 2007; 36(10):1293–1299.
19. Kwon JS, Kim K, Kim HK. A study on application of food photographs for estimating individuals dietary intake. Korean J Community Nutr. 2010; 15(6):760–775.
20. Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intake for Koreans. 1st revision. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society;2010. p. xxv–xxix. p. 30–32.
21. Choi HM. Nutrition. 3rd ed. Paju: Kyomunsa;2006. p. 176–177. p. 584–586.
22. Suh HJ, Lee Y, Jang Y, Kim B, Lee H, Kim CI. Current status and management of congregate meal service program for the elderly at community centers. J Korean Diet Assoc. 2004; 10(3):333–344.
23. National health insurance service. Long-term care insurance [internet]. 2016. cited 2016 Feb 1. Available from:
24. Cho KJ, Han DH. Study on food habits of the elderly in institution. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr. 1998; 27(4):756–764.
25. Roberts SB. Effects of aging on energy requirements and the control of food intake in men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995; 50(Spec No):101–106.
26. Volkert D, Kreuel K, Heseker H, Stehle P. Energy and nutrient intake of young-old, old-old and very-old elderly in Germany. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58(8):1190–1200.
27. Bell J, Whiting SJ. Elderly women need dietary protein to maintain bone mass. Nutr Rev. 2002; 60(10):337–341.
28. Chobanian AV, Hill M. National heart, lung, and blood institute workshop on sodium and blood pressure: A critical review of current scientific evidence. Hypertension. 2000; 35(4):858–863.
29. Ahn SH, Kim HK, Kim KM, Yoon JS, Kwon JS. Development of nutrition education program for consumers to reduce sodium intake applying the social cognitive theory: based on focus group interviews. Korean J Community Nutr. 2014; 19(4):342–360.
30. He FJ, Macgregor GA. Reducing population salt intake worldwide: from evidence to implementation. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010; 52(5):363–382.
31. Park YS, Son SM, Lim WJ, Kim SB, Chung YS. Comparison of dietary behaviors related to sodium intake by gender and age. Korean J Community Nutr. 2008; 13(1):1–12.
32. Catholic University of Korea & Management Center for Health promotion. Integrated health promotion service in community health center. 2010. p. 22–48.
33. Jimenez-Redondo S, Beltrán de Miguel B, Gavidia Banegas J, Guzmán Mercedes L, Gomez-Pavon J, Cuadrado Vives C. Influence of nutritional status on health-related quality of life of non-institutionalized older people. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014; 18(4):359–364.
34. Lee HS. The Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life in the Elderly: Focused on the General Characteristics, Health Habits, Mental Health, Chronic Diseases, and Nutrient Intake Status: Data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination. Korean J Community Nutr. 2014; 19(5):479–489.
35. Chang YK, Park HR, Byun KW, Kwon JS. Basic nutrition. Seoul: Kyomunsa;2006. p. 198–288.
36. Kim HY, Lee SH, Lim YL. A study on the dietary and nutrition intake of the elderly resident in nursing home. J Korea Goron Soc. 1995; 15(2):69–83.
37. Seo S, Yun N. Foodservice management and food safety knowledge and practices of employees in elderly welfare facilities. J Korean Diet Assoc. 2011; 17(3):287–301.
38. Hong SY, Seo S. Job performance frequency and the training needs of dieticians in elderly healthcare facilities. J Korean Diet Assoc. 2010; 16(2):160–177.
39. Wouters-Wesseling W, Wouters AE, Kleijer CN, Bindels JG, de Groot CP, van Staveren WA. Study of the effects of a liquid nutrition supplement on the nutritional status of psycho-geriatric nursing home patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002; 56(3):245–251.
40. Nijs KA, de Graaf C, Kok FJ, van Staveren WA. Effect of family style mealtimes on quality of life, physical performance, and body weight of nursing home residents: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2006; 332(7551):1180–1184.

Jong-Sook Kwon

Similar articles