Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.20(2) > 1038496

Yoon and Song: Vitamin D intake, Outdoor Activity Time and Serum 25-OH Vitamin D Concentrations of Korean Postmenopausal Women by Season and by Age



The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of seasonal differences and age on dietary vitamin D intakes, outdoor activity time and serum vitamin D status among Korean postmenopausal women.


A cross-sectional study was conducted with 164 free-living postmenopausal women (mean age=55.4 years) in Daegu, Korea. Dietary intake, daily physical activity patterns and fasting blood samples were collected during summer and winter. We compared the results from 75 women during summer and 89 women during winter. Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed by 24-hour recall method. Daily outdoor activity time was derived from physical activity diary.


The average dietary intake of vitamin D of the participants was 3.7 µg during summer, 3.3 µg during winter, showing no significant difference between the two seasons. The average time spent on outdoor activities was not significantly different between summer (=35.1 ± 75.0 min/d) and winter (=48.5 ± 76.8 min/d). The average serum 25-(OH) vitamin D concentrations of participants was 17.5 ± 7.5 ng/mL in the summer and 13.4 ± 4.3 ng/mL in the winter, showing no significant differences by season. Dietary intake of vitamin D was not related to age. When total subjects were divided into two groups by age, the average serum 25-(OH) vitamin D concentration was significantly higher in older group (p=0.047) and time spent on outdoor activities was also (p=0.018) significantly higher in the older group.


In order to improve the current vitamin D status of Korean postmenopausal women, nutrition education programs should focus more on adequate intake of vitamin D, while maintaining enough outdoor activities over the season.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Physical characteristics of subjects by season


1) p-value: Independent sample t-test

2) Mean±SD

3) Range of values indicates (minimum~maximum).

4) Body mass index

5) Bone mineral density

Table 2

Bone health status of subjects by season


1) T-score ≥ -1.0

2) N (%)

3) -1.0 < T-score < -2.5

4) NS: statistically not significant by chi-square test

5) T-score ≤ -2.5

Table 3

Daily energy and nutrients intake of subjects by season


1) %KDRIs mean % EER (Estimated energy requirement) for energy; %AI (Adequate intake) for Na, vitamin D, % RNI (Recommended nutrient intake) for other nutrients.

2) p-value: Independent sample t-test

3) Mean±SD

4) Range of values indicates (minimum~maximum).

Table 4

Time spent on outdoor activities by season


1) p-value: Independent sample t-test.

2) Mean±SD

Table 5

Serum 25-(OH) vitamin D concentrations by season


1) Mean±SD

2) p-value: Independent sample t-test

3) Vitamin D status: classified by Holick (2007)

4) N (%)

5) p-value: chi-square test

Table 6

Comparison of BMD, dietary intake, serum 25-(OH) Vitamin D and outdoor activities by age groups


1) p-value: Independent sample t-test

2) Mean±SD


This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Reserch Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST 2010-0241)


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