Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.19(1) > 1038492

Kim, Yu, and Yang: Association of Food and Nutrient Intakes with Periodontitis by Smoking Status among Korean Adults


Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases in the oral cavity, and this is the leading cause of loss of teeth. Studies on the association between diet and periodontal diseases are very limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between food and nutrient intakes and the prevalence of periodontitis. Subjects were 13,391 adults participating in the 2008-2010 Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Periodontitis was diagnosed by dentists using the Community Periodontal Index. Nutrient intakes were estimated by the 24-hour dietary recall. Consumption frequencies of foods were from the food frequency questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into 'smoking' or 'non-smoking' groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the association between diet and periodontitis. The proportions of subjects having periodontitis were 26% in the non-smoking group and 37.5% in the smoking group. In the non-smoking group, intakes of fruits, dairy products, green tea, energy and vitamin C were inversely associated with the prevalence of periodontitis, but fish and coffee intakes were positively associated with the prevalence of periodontitis after adjusting for covariates. In the smoking group, protein and retinol intakes were inversely associated with the prevalence of periodontitis after adjusting for covariates. These results suggest that certain food and nutrient intakes such as fruits, dairy products, green tea, vitamin C, protein, or retinol intakes may affect the prevalence of periodontitis among Korean adults. Further studies are required to confirm these findings in other research settings.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
Prevalence rate of periodontitis according to age groups by the smoking status.
Fig. 2
Frequencies of food intakes of the subjects according to periodontitis by the smoking status.
General liner model after adjustment for age and sex.
*: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01
Table 1
General characteristics of the study subjects and by the periodontitis by smoking status

1) t-test for continuous variables and χ2-test for categorical variables

2) Mean ± SD

3) N (%)

4) Chronic diseases were defined as including one of more of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, angina or myocardial infarction

Table 2
Nutrient intakes of the subjects according to periodontitis by the smoking status

1) All nutrients except energy were total energy adjusted by residual method after log transformation.

2) t-test

3) Mean ± SD

Table 3
Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs between the prevalence of periodontitis and food and nutrient intakes in the non-smoking group

Multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex education (elementary, middle, high, college), tooth brushing after lunch (yes, no), and chronic diseases (yes, no).

1) Odds Ratio

2) 95% confidence interval

Table 4
Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs between the prevalence of periodontitis and food and nutrient intakes in the smoking group

Multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex education (elementary, middle, high, college), tooth brushing after lunch (yes, no), and chronic disease (yes, no).

1) Odds Ratio

2) 95% confidence interval


This research was supported by the Dongduk Women's University grant.


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