Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.19(4) > 1038470

Ahn, Kim, Kim, Yoon, and Kwon: Development of Nutrition Education Program for Consumers to Reduce Sodium Intake Applying the Social Cognitive Theory: Based on Focus Group Interviews



This study aimed to develop nutrition education program for consumers to reduce sodium intake based on social cognitive theory (SCT).


The main factors of SCT related to low sodium diet were investigated by using focus group interview (FGI) with 30 women who participated in consumer organizations.


The main target groups for the education program were housewives (H), parents (P), and the office workers (OW), for which we considered their influences on other people and the surroundings. According to the results of FGI, in carrying out low sodium diet, 'positive outcome expectation' were prevention of chronic disease and healthy dietary habit, and 'negative outcome expectation' were low palatability of foods, difficulty in cooking meals, and limited choice of foods. The contents of the program and education materials were individualized by each group to raise self-efficacy and behavioral capability, which reflected the results of the FGI. The program included 'salt intake and health' to raise positive outcome expectation. For improving the ability to practice low-sodium diet, the program contained the contents that focused on 'cooking' and 'food purchasing' for H, on 'purchasing and selection of low-sodium food with the children' for P, and on 'way of selecting restaurant menu' for OW. Also the program included 'way of choosing the low-sodium foods when eating out' with suggestions on sodium content of the dishes and snacks. Further, 'dietary guidelines to reduce sodium intake' was also suggested to help self-regulation.


This nutrition education program and education materials could be utilized for the community education and provide the basis for further consumer targeted education program for reducing sodium intake.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
The process of nutrition education program development
Fig. 2
The nutrition education material for reducing sodium intake
(a) Power-points for housewives, parents, office-workers (b) Manual book for educator (c) Pamphlet (d) Booklet of low-sodium recipe (e) Family letters of school nutrition education (f) Work-sheet, (g) Leaflet (h) Proceeding manual of nutrition education for educator
Table 1
The questions used for focus group interview based on social cognitive theory
Table 2
The general characteristics of the participants in focus group interview

1) Student's t-test

2) Chi-square test

**: p < 0.01.

Table 3
THe major themes and contents for social cognitive theory from Focus Group Interview (n = 30)

1) SH: senior housewives 2) P: parents 3) O: office-workers

Table 4
Needs on nutrition education programs for reducing sodium intake (n = 30)

1) P: parents 2) O: office-workers

Table 5
The contents of recipe booklet for nutrition education
Table 6
The nutrition education program for senior housewives to reduce sodium intake

1) B: behavioral factors, 2) E: Environmental factors, 3) C: cognitive factors

Table 7
The nutrition education program for parents to reduce sodium intake

1) B: behavioral factors, 2) E: Environmental factors, 3) C: cognitive factors

Table 8
The nutrition education program for office-workers to reduce sodium intake

1) B: behavioral factors, 2) E: Environmental factors, 3) C: cognitive factors


This research was supported by grants from Korea Food and Drug Administration fund. (11162Sobiyeon165).


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