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Lee, Kim, Lee, and Choue: Nutritional Status, Quality of Diet and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women with Mild Climacteric Symptoms Based on Food Group Intake Patterns


This study was conducted to examine the nutritional status, quality of diet and quality of life in postmenopausal women with mild climacteric symptoms based on their food group intake patterns. The data for nutritional status were obtained using 3-day records. Quality of diet was assessed by INQ, NAR, MAR, DDS, DVS, DQI-I. Climacteric symptoms were analyzed by the questionnaire of Kupperman's index and MENoL. The subjects were classified into the five groups, GMVDF, GMVdF, GMVDf, GMVdf, GmVDF according to their food group intake patterns. Analysis of nutrient intakes showed that the GMVDF group took significantly higher levels of kcal, carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, phosphorous, sodium, iron, zinc and fiber than GMVdf group did (p < 0.05). INQ of Ca and Fe appeared to be higher in GMVDF than in GMVdf groups (p < 0.05). Analysis of NARs showed that missing milk groups took lower riboflavin, Ca and P than other groups did as the same result with MAR (p < 0.05). Analysis of DDS and DQI showed that GMVdf group had the lowest quality of diet (p < 0.05); however, no difference was found on DVS. The GMVdf group showed the worst climacteric symptoms compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05). However, we couldn't observe any differences in menopause-specific quality of life among the groups. In conclusion, it would be beneficial to meet all five food groups to increase the quality of diet and to reduce the climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
Percent contribution of food groups for vitamin and mineral intakes (%).
Table 1
Anthropometric and blood parameters according to the food group intake patterns

1) Waist Hip Ratio, 2) Systolic Blood Pressure, 3) Diastolic Blood Pressure, 4) Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol, 5) High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol, 6) Grain, Meat, Vegetable, Dairy, and Fruit, 7) Values are Mean ± SD

: Significantly different categorical variables by the chi-square test at p < 0.05

*: Means with different alphabetic letters within a raw are significantly different at p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test after ANOVA

Table 2
Nutrients intakes according to the food group intake patterns

1) Percentage ratio of carbohydrate : protein : fat in energy intake

2) Mean ± SD

3) Means with different alphabetic letters within a raw are significantly different at *: p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test after ANOVA

Table 3
INQ, NAR and MAR according to the food group intake patterns

1) INQ : Index of Nutritional Quality, 2) NAR : Nutrient Adequacy Ratio, 3) MAR : Mean Adequacy Ratio, 4) Mean ± SD, 5) Means with different alphabetic letters within a raw are significantly different at *: p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test after ANOVA

Table 4
Total diet quality according to the food group intake patterns

1) DDS : Dietary Diversity Score, 2) DVS : Dietary Variety Score, 3) DQI-I : Dietary Quality of Index-international was composed with four domains, variety, adequacy, moderation, overall balance, 4) Mean ± SD, 5) Means with different alphabetic letters within a raw are significantly different at *: p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test after ANOVA

Table 5
Climacteric Symptoms according to the food group intake patterns

1) The scores of Kupperman's index were categorised as follows: normal < 20, moderate : 20 - 40, severe > 40. If a patient has a score of 20 she could be categorised as moderate

2) MENQoL : Menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire. The higher the scores of MENQoL were had, the worse the menopausal women's quality of life was had

3) Mean ± SD

4) Means with different alphabetic letters within a raw are significantly different at *: p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test


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