Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.17(4) > 1038373

Lee, Cho, and Lee: Characteristics of the Health Factors in 45~60 Year Old Korean Women related to Menopausal Stages - Based on 2008~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey -


We analyzed data from the combined 2008~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to compare the health factors related to menopausal stages in 45~60 year old Korean women. In this study, we classified the subjects into a premenopausal group (n = 439) and a postmenopausal group (n = 683). In the postmenopausal group, age was higher (p < 0.001), monthly income (p < 0.01) and education levels (p < 0.001) were significantly lower than in the premenopausal group. Body fat % and waist circumferences were also higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. The serum glucose (p < 0.05), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p < 0.001), GOT (p < 0.001), GPT (p < 0.001) in the postmenopausal group were higher than in the premenopausal group. The postmenopausal group showed a significantly lower quality of life compared to the premenopausal group (p < 0.01). With regard to dietary quality, nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and niacin in the postmenopausal group were significantly lower than in the premenopausal group. The levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride showed a significantly positive correlation with age, waist circumferences, body fat % and BMI. The 45~60 year old Korean women in this study showed high levels of obesity and serum lipids. Also, intakes of the vitamins and minerals of the women did not meet the level of Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. Therefore, nutritional risk may be high in the women, especially in postmenopausal women. In order to prevent the health risk, women's health care including the quality of the meal should be considered.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
General and life style characteristics by menopausal stages

1) Values are Mean ± SE or N (%)

2) by t-test or chi-square test (*: p<0.05, **: p<0.01, ***: p<0.001)

Table 2
Anthropometric characteristics by menopausal stages

1) Values are Mean ± SE

2) by t-test (***: p < 0.001)

Table 3
Serum biochemical values by menopausal stages

1) Values are Mean ± SE

2) by t-test (*: p < 0.05, ***: p < 0.001)

3) GOT: Glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase

4) GPT: Glutamate pyruvate transaminase

5) Hb: Hemoglobin

6) Hct: Hematocrit

7) WBC: White blood cell

8) RBC: Red blood cell

Table 4
Mental health by menopausal stages

1) Values are Mean ± SE

2) EQ-5D index: EuroQo1-5Dimension index

3) by t-test (**: p < 0.01)

Table 5
Average daily nutrient intakes and KDRIs % by menopausal stages

1) KDRIs: Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans

2) Values are Mean ± SE

3) by t-test (***: p < 0.001)

4) Intaked energy distribution ratio of carbohydrate:protein:fat

§: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), : Recommended Intake (RI), : Adequate Intake (AI)

Table 6
NAR and MAR values of nutrients by menopausal stages

1) NAR: Nutrient Adequacy Ratio

2) Values are Mean ± SE

3) by t-test (*: p < 0.05, ***: p < 0.001)

4) MAR: Mean Adequacy Ratio

Table 7
Correlation coefficients between health indicators and related factors in middle-aged women

1) by Pearson's correlation (*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001)


This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(grant number. 2011-0013053)


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