Journal List > J Korean Acad Oral Health > v.44(1) > 1144482

Kim, Park, Chung, Choi, and Jeong: Effects of some commercial calamansi-containing beverages on the enamel surface



The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some commercial calamansi-containing beverages on the sound surface of bovine teeth as well as the dental erosion inhibitory effects of calcium.


The pH and titratable acidity of six kinds of commercially available calamansi beverages were determined. Further, 3% calcium was added to the calamansi beverage Oranssi in the experimental group to confirm its dental erosion inhibitory effect. Jeju Samdasoo was used in the negative control group and Coca-Cola in the positive control group. After immersing the sound teeth specimens for 10 min, surface microhardness was measured using the Vickers hardness number (VHN), and surface changes in specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope.


The average pH of the commercial calamansi beverages was 2.54±0.22. After 10 min of treatment with each experimental beverage, the surface hardness difference (ΔVHN) was highest in the Coca-Cola group (―49.05±12.59), followed by the Oranssi calamansi group (―43.77± 13.70), 3% calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group (―2.71±12.58), and Samdasoo group (14.03± 20.79). There was no significant difference between the bottled water and calcium-added Oranssi calamansi groups or between the Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the surface hardness between the bottled water and Coca-Cola groups (P<0.05). On scanning electron microscopy, the Samdasoo group showed a smooth surface without any loss, but Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups showed a rough surface due to erosion. However, although fine cracks and porosities were seen in the calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group, surfaces in the group were much smoother than those in the Oranssi calamansi group.


Calamansi beverages of low pH may cause corrosion of the tooth surface, and the addition of calcium to the calamansi beverages inhibits demineralization of the tooth surface. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the risk of dental erosion when drinking calamansi beverages of low pH.


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Fig. 1.
SEM images of enamel surface after treatment by beverages on enamel (1: Jeju SamdaSoo, 2: Coca-Cola, 3: Oranssi calamansi, 4: 3% Ca plus Oranssi calamansi, A: ×10,000, B: × 50,000).
Table 1.
Calamansi beverages in this experiment
Classification Brand name Manufacturer Preservative* Acid added*
Carbonated beverage Calamansi soda Bohae Co., Ltd. Sodium benzoate
Tropalm calamansi NAMviet Foods & Beverage Co., Ltd. Citric acid
Oranssi calamansi Donga-Otsuka Co. Sodium citrate Citric acid
Lactic acid
Ascorbic acid
Green vegetable and fruit beverage Sweet cafe calamansi MSC Co.,Ltd. Citric acid
Ascorbic acid
Troeat calamansi Rita Food & Drink Co., Ltd.
Cafe real calamansi aid Jardin Co., Ltd. Sodium citrate Citric acid

*The ingredients are indicated on the product.

Table 2.
Composition of calamansi beverages used in the experiment
Group Calamansi added
Jeju SamdaSoo (Negative control)
Coca-Cola (Positive control)
Oranssi calamansi 1.3% Calamansi puree
3% Ca+Oranssi calamansi 1.3% Calamansi puree
Table 3.
The pH & buffer capacity of calamansi beverages
Classfication Brand name pH Buffer capacity (ml)
pH 5.5 pH 7.0
Carbonated beverage Calamansi soda 2.41±0.00 0.60±0.00 1.00±0.00
Tropalm calamansi 2.66±0.02 1.00±0.00 1.30±0.00
Oranssi calamansi 2.29±0.01 1.40±0.00 1.90±0.00
Green vegetable and fruit beverage Sweet cafe calamansi 2.51±0.03 1.60±0.00 2.00±0.00
Troeat calamansi 2.92±0.00 1.20±0.00 1.60±0.00
Cafe real calamansi aid 2.48±0.00 1.50±0.00 1.90±0.00

All values are mean±standard deviation.

Table 4.
Surface microhardness changes before and after treatment by experimented group
Group Treatment
Before (0 min) After (10 min)
Jeju SamdaSoo 287.37±11.04 294.06±15.39 6.69±22.05a
Coca-Cola 287.87±12.73 238.81±3.47* ―49.05±12.59b
Oranssi calamansi 287.45±10.74 243.74±9.42* ―43.71±13.73b
3% Ca+Oranssi calamansi 287.77±10.53 285.06±8.02 ―2.71±12.58a

Values are mean±SD. N=12. *P<0.05, by paired t-test;

P<0.05, by one-way ANOVA;

a,b The same letter indicates no significant difference by Tukey test at a=0.05.

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