Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.50(1) > 1143165

J Korean Acad Nurs. 2020 Feb;50(1):132-146. Korean.
Published online Feb 28, 2020.  https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2020.50.1.132
© 2020 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Development and Validation of the New Version of Spirituality Assessment Scale
Il-Sun Ko,1 Soyoung Choi,2 and Jin Sook Kim3
1College of Nursing, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
2College of Nursing, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
3Department of Nursing, Woosong University, Daejeon, Korea.

Address reprint requests to: Kim, Jin Sook. Department of Nursing, Woosong University, 171 Dongdaejeon-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34606, Korea. Tel: +82-42-630-9294, Fax: +82-42-630-9299, Email: somach87@hanmail.net
Received Jul 19, 2019; Revised Nov 18, 2019; Accepted Jan 30, 2020.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivs License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/) If the original work is properly cited and retained without any modification or reproduction, it can be used and re-distributed in any format and medium.


Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop a new version of Spirituality Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and verify its reliability and validity.

Methods

The total of 59 preliminary items for the N-SAS were selected through a literature review, two rounds of experts' content validation, cognitive interviews, and pre-tests. Verification of its reliability and validity was divided into two phases. In Phase I, questionnaires were collected from 219 adults. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha, validity with item analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase II, questionnaires developed based on the results of Phase I were collected from 225 adults. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha, validity with confirmatory factor analysis, and criterion validity.

Results

The final version of the N-SAS comprised two dimensions (vertical and horizontal), four domains (relationship with God; meaning of life and self-integration; self-transcendence; and relationship with others, neighborhoods, and nature), and 44 items were identified. Total Cronbach's α was .97; those of each subscale ranged from .79 to .98. N-SAS scores were positively correlated with the scores of Howden's Spiritual Assessment Scale (r=.81, p<.001).

Conclusion

Findings suggest that the N-SAS can be used to measure spirituality in adults. The use of N-SAS is expected to facilitate perceiving patient's spiritual needs and providing spiritual care.

Keywords: Spirituality; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Reliability and Validity

Figures


Figure 1
Steps of N-SAS development.
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Tables


Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of Participants n (%) or M±SD
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Table 2
Items Analysis, Factor Loading, and Validity in Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis
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Table 3
Discriminant Validity of Average Variance Extracted and 95% Confidence Interval in Confirmatory Factor Analysis (N=211)
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Table 4
Correlation between New Version of Spirituality Assessment Scale (N-SAS) and Spiritual Assessment Scale (SAS)
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Notes

This study was supported by the Research Grant of College of Nursing, Yonsei University in 2014, 2015 (NO: 6-2014-0183, 6-2015-0183).

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:The authors declared no conflict of interest.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS:

  • Conceptualization or/and Methodology: Ko IS & Kim JS.

  • Data curation or/and Analysis: Kim JS.

  • Funding acquisition: Ko IS.

  • Investigation: Choi S & Kim JS.

  • Project administration or/and Supervision: Ko IS.

  • Resources or and Software: Kim JS.

  • Validation: Ko IS & Kim JS.

  • Visualization: Ko IS & Kim JS.

  • Writing original draft or/and Review & editing: Ko IS & Choi S & Kim JS.

Appendix

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