Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.50(1) > 1143162

J Korean Acad Nurs. 2020 Feb;50(1):116-131. Korean.
Published online Feb 28, 2020.
© 2020 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Development and Effect of a Smartphone Overdependence Prevention Program for University Students Based on Self-Determination Theory
Myung Soon Kwon,1 and Jeong Soon Yu2
1School of Nursing · Research Institute of Nursing Science, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.
2School of Nursing, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.

Address reprint requests to: Yu, Jeong Soon. School of Nursing, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon 24252, Korea. Tel: +82-33-248-2719, Fax: +82-33-248-2734, Email:
Received May 28, 2019; Revised Jan 19, 2020; Accepted Jan 19, 2020.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivs License. ( If the original work is properly cited and retained without any modification or reproduction, it can be used and re-distributed in any format and medium.



This study aimed to develop a smartphone overdependence prevention program for college students based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and evaluate its effectiveness.


A non-equivalent control group repeated measures design was used for the study. Participants were 64 university freshmen (experimental group: 29, control group: 35). The developed program consists of eight sessions conducted twice a week. The program was designed to promote autonomy, competence, and relatedness the three elements of the basic psychological needs of self-determination theory. The participants were assessed before the program, immediately after, and 1 and 3 months after the program. Data were collected from April 23 to September 14, 2018 and analyzed by performing a Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS/WIN 23.0.


This study showed improvement in the basic psychological needs (F=3.90, p =.010) in the experimental group compared to the control group. Specifically, competence (F=2.93, p =.035), relatedness (F=2.89, p =.045), and self-regulatory ability (F=3.11, p =.028) improved significantly.


Study findings indicate that the smartphone overdependence prevention program based on the Self-determination theory could be an effective intervention for improving basic psychological needs and self-regulation ability. Therefore, this program could be an efficient strategy for smartphone overdependence prevention in university students.

Keywords: Smartphone; Addictive; Behavior; Personal Autonomy; Universities


Figure 1
Flow chart of the study.
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Figure 2
Average trend of the groups and post hoc test on the effect analysis.
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Table 1
The Contents of the Smartphone Overdependence Prevention Program Based on Self-Determination Theory
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Table 2
Homogeneity Test of Characteristics of Subjects & Measured Variables (N=64)
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Table 3
Effects of the Smartphone Overdependence Prevention Program (N=64)
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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, No.2017R1A2B4007087) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) and was also supported by Hallym University (HRF-201708-008).

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:The authors declared no conflict of interest.


  • Conceptualinzation or/and Methodology: Kwon MS.

  • Data curation or/and Analysis: Yu JS.

  • Funding acquisition: Kwon MS.

  • Investigation: Yu JS.

  • Project administration or/and Supervision: Kwon MS.

  • Resources or/and Software: Kwon MS.

  • Validation: Kwon MS.

  • Visualization: Yu JS.

  • Writing original draft or/and Review & editing: Yu JS.

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