Journal List > Korean J Sports Med > v.37(4) > 1140266

Kim: Effects of 12 Weeks of Combined Exercise on Vascular Function-Related Inflammation Factors, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Physical Fitness in Obese 40s-Aged Women with Metabolic Syndrome



The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise on vascular function-related inflammation, carotid intima-media thickness and fitness factors in obese middle-aged women with metabolic syndrome.


The subjects of this study were 40 middle-aged women in their 40s with metabolic syndrome but no specific disease. The exercise group performed aerobic exercise and resistance exercise five times a week for 12 weeks, and then measured body composition, blood pressure, vascular function-related inflammation factors, metabolic syndrome factors, carotid intima-media thickness, and physical factors.


The exercise group showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction after exercise in all items related to body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and intima-media thickness of the right carotid and left carotid arteries. Exercise group showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) after exercise in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, and all items of glucose metabolism-related variables. The exercise group showed a significant (p<0.05) increase after exercise physical efficiency index, grip strength, sit-ups, and sit & reach. After 12 weeks of exercise training, the reduction of intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the improvement of body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, grip and sit & reach, blood HbA1c, and triglyceride concentration.


In conclusion, metabolic syndrome improved the body composition, blood glucose metabolism and lipid variables after 12 weeks of combined exercise program for obese middle-aged women. Significant improvement in blood pressure and carotid endometrial thickness, which is a function-related indicator, was confirmed.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Correlation between blood pressure differences and difference of intima-media thickness of left carotid artery after exercise training. SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure.

Table 1

Physical characteristics of subjects


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

BMI: body mass index.

Table 2

Changes of body composition


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, BMI: body mass index, WHR: waist to hip ratio.


Table 3

Changes of blood pressure


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure.


Table 4

Changes of blood concentration of cytokines


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, CRP: C-reactive protein, IL-6: interleukin-6, PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α.

*p<0.05 2-way ANOVA or compared to pre-value in t-test of post hoc; Compared to control value in t-test of post hoc.

Table 5

Changes of blood concentrations of glucose metabolism-related parameters


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, HOMA: homeostatic model assessment.

*p<0.05 2-way ANOVA or compared to pre-value in t-test of post hoc; Compared to control value in t-test of post hoc.

Table 6

Changes of blood concentration of lipid profiles


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, TC: total cholesterol, FFA: free fatty acid, HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TG: triglyceride.


Table 7

Changes of intima-media thickness of carotid artery


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, Rt: right, Lt: left.


Table 8

Changes of physical fitness


Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

ANOVA: analysis of variance, PEI: physical efficiency index.


Table 9

Correlation coefficients among differences between pre- and post-exercise training in parameters


Δ: difference between pre and post-value, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, RCCA: intima-media thickness of right carotid artery, LCCA: intima-media thickness of left carotid artery, BMI: body mass index, TG: triglyceride, IL-6: interleukin-6.

*p<0.05, **p<0.01.


Conflict of Interest No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.


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Kijin Kim

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