Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.58(4) > 1138963

Baek, Yun, Nam, Seo, Kwon, Lee, and Choi: Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women



Maternal depression has a detrimental effect on baby growth. Recent reports suggest that depressive symptoms are more likely to occur during pregnancy than in the postpartum period. In Korea, there are relatively few studies of depression during pregnancy compared to those related to postpartum depression. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with antenatal depression.


The study included 143 pregnant women who had completed the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (K-EPDS), the Korea-Marital Satisfaction Inventory's global distress scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. Based on the K-EPDS scores, we divided the participants into two groups. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with antenatal depression.


Thirty (21%) of the subjects were evaluated as being depressed, pregnant women. Pregnant women with high self-esteem and marital satisfaction were less likely to have depression. Similarly, those who are younger and those with an abortion history were more likely to have depression. Past psychiatric history and family history were not significantly different between the two groups.


Dissatisfaction with marriage, low self-esteem, younger age, and abortion history were closely related to the presence of antenatal depression. The results of this study can be used as baseline data for the development of family-based education programs and early antenatal depression policies.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Maternal mental health promotion program of the Deodeok-gu Mental Health Welfare Center.

Table 1

Sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of the participants


Variables are presented as number (percentage) or mean (standard deviation). SD : Standard deviation, K-RSES : Korean Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, CD-RISC-2 : Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2, K-MSI_GDS : Korean-Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Global Distress Scale

Table 2

Factors associated with antenatal depression


The following factors were also included in the logistic regression analyses but not significantly associated with antenatal depression and therefore not presented in the table : unemployed, education, income, family psychiatric history, psychiatric history, unplanned pregnancy, duration of marriage, alcohol use during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy. *: p<0.05, **: p<0.01. OR : Odds ratio, CI : Confidence interval, K-RSES : Korean Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, CD-RISC-2 : Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2, K-MSI_GDS : Korean-Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Global Distress Scale


Conflicts of Interest The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.


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