Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.49(4) > 1131252

J Korean Acad Nurs. 2019 Aug;49(4):398-410. Korean.
Published online Aug 29, 2019.
© 2019 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Development of a Quantitative Model on Adolescent Cyberbullying Victims in Korea: A System Dynamics Approach
Mi Jin You and Eun Mi Ham
Department of Nursing, Konkuk University GLOCAL Campus, Chungju, Korea.

Address reprint requests to: Ham, Eun Mi. Department of Nursing, Konkuk University GLOCAL Campus, 268 Chungwon-daero, Chungju 27478, Korea. Tel: +82-43-840-3955, Fax: +82-43-840-3114, Email:
Received Jan 25, 2019; Revised May 13, 2019; Accepted May 16, 2019.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivs License. ( If the original work is properly cited and retained without any modification or reproduction, it can be used and re-distributed in any format and medium.



This study used a system dynamics methodology to identify correlation and nonlinear feedback structures among factors affecting adolescent cyberbullying victims (CV) in Korea and to construct and verify a simulation model.


Factors affecting CV were identified by reviewing a theoretical background in existing literature and referencing various statistical data. Related variables were identified through content validity verification by an expert group, after which a causal loop diagram (CLD) was constructed based on the variables. A stock-flow diagram (SFD) using Vensim Professional 7.3 was used to establish a CV model.


Based on the literature review and expert verification, 22 variables associated with CV were identified and the CLD was prepared. Next, a model was developed by converting the CLD to an SFD. The simulation results showed that the variables such as negative emotions, stress levels, high levels of conflict in schools, parental monitoring, and time spent using new media had the strongest effects on CV. The model's validity was verified using equation check, sensitivity analysis for time-step and simulation with 4 CV adolescent.


The system dynamics model constructed in this study can be used to develop intervention strategies in schools that are focused on counseling that can prevent cyberbullying and assist in the victims' recovery by formulating a feedback structure and capturing the dynamic changes observed in CV. To prevent cyberbullying, it is necessary to develop more effective strategies such as prevention education, counseling and treatment that considers factors pertaining to the individual, family, school, and media.

Keywords: Adolescent; Bullying; Nonlinear Dynamics


Figure 1
Causal loop diagram of cyberbullying victims.
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Figure 2
Stock-flow diagram of cyberbullying victims.
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Figure 4
Analyzing adolescent case for model verification.
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Table 1
Characteristics of Adolescent by Case
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This manuscript is a condensed form of the first author's doctoral dissertation from Konkuk University.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:The authors declared no conflict of interest.

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