Journal List > Korean J Adult Nurs > v.31(4) > 1130756

Oh, Suh, and Kim: Effect of Exercise Stage-Matched Intervention for Elderly Women with Chronic Back Pain in the Contemplation and Preparation Stage



The purpose of this paper was to develop a stage-matched intervention based on the TransTheoretical Model (TTM) for elderly women with chronic back pain in the contemplation and preparation stage and evaluate its effectiveness.


Fifty elderly women with chronic back pain (experimental group, n=25; control group, n=25) was recruited from elderly welfare centers. The research was a nonequivalent control group pre- posttest experimental design. The process of change for exercise, exercise decisional balance, and exercise self-efficacy were used as interventional strategies. To examine the effectiveness of this program, the dependent variables, back pain and muscle strength, were measured before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after the intervention, from May 16 to August 26, 2016. The data were analyzed with the χ2 test, independent t-test, two way repeated measured ANOVA.


The process of change for exercise, exercise self-efficacy, and muscle strength were improved and back pain was decreased in the experimental group as compared with the control group.


The results of this study suggest that the stage-matched intervention was effective for improving the process of change for exercise, exercise self-efficacy, and muscle strength in elderly women with chronic back pain in the contemplation and preparation stage. It's wider implementation in community settings will promise promoted exercise activity among elderly women with chronic back pain.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Exercise Program based on Transtheoretical Model


CR=consciousness raising; DR=dramatic relief; ER=environmental reevaluation; SR=self reevaluation; SL=self-liberation; HR=helping relationship.

Table 2

Intervention Strategies in Phone Coaching


EDB=exercise decisional balance; ESE=exercise self-efficacy; PCE=process of change for exercis; CR=consciousness raising; DR=dramatic relief; ER=environmental reevaluation; SL=self-liberation; SR=self reevaluation.

Table 3

Homogeneity Test of General Characteristics, and Dependent Variables between Experimental and Control Group (N=50)


Cont.=control group; Exp.=experimental group; BMI=body mass index; Pros=benefits; Cons=loss; Fisher's exact test.

Table 4

Difference of Variables by Time and Group (N=50)


Cont.=control group; Exp.=experimental group; Pros=benefits; Cons=loss; Two way repeated measures ANCOVA.


This article is revision of the first author's doctoral dissertation from Kyungpook National University.


CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declared no conflict of interest.


  • Study conception and design acquisition - OH-J and SS-R.

  • Data collection - OH-J.

  • Analysis and interpretation of the data - OH-J, SS-R and KM.

  • Drafting and critical revision of the manuscript - OH-J, SS-R and KM.


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