Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.8(1) > 1127747

Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2002 Mar;8(1):69-84. Korean.
Published online Jun 04, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.4069/kjwhn.2002.8.1.69
Copyright © 2002 Korean Academy of Women's Health Nursing
A Structural Model for Depression in Middle-aged Women
Geum Ja Park,* and Kyung Hye Lee**
*Associate professor, department of Nursing Science, Kosin University, Korea.
**Professor, department of Nursing Science, Ewha Woman's University, Korea.
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develope and test the structural model for depression in middle-aged women.

A hypothetical model was constructed on the basis of previous studies and a review of literatures. The conceptual framework was built around eight constructs. Exogenous variables included in this model were volunteer activity, health status & economic status. Endogenous variables were meaning of life, self-esteem, perceived life stress & depression.

Empirical data for testing the hypothetical model was collected using a self-report questionnaire from 216 middle-aged women in Pusan City.

The Data was collected from May to June, 1999.

Reliability of the seven instruments tested with Cronbach's alpha was ranged from .86-.94.

For the data analysis, SPSS 7.5 WIN Program and LISREL 8.12 WIN Program were used for descriptive statistics and covariance structural analysis.

The results of covariance structure analysis were as follows:

  1. The hypothetical model showed a good fit with the empirical data.

    2/df =2.87(p=.72), GFI=1.00, AGFI=.98, RMSR=.025, NFI=.99, standardized residuals (-1.44~1.44) ].

  2. To heighten for the parsimony and fitness of the model, a modified model was constructed by deleting according to the criteria of statistical significance and meaning.

  3. The modified model also showed a good fit with the data.

    2 =5.26(01=7,p=.63), GFI=.99, AGFl=.97, RMSR=.025, NFI=.99, standardized reslduals (-1.50~1.45) ]

Results of the testing of the hypothesis were as follows :

  1. Self-esteem(β42=-.48, t=-5.64) had a negative and perceived life stress(β43=.20, t=3.21)had a positive direct effect on depression. Meaning of life had a negative direct(β41=-.17, t=-2.19) and a negative indirect effect through self-esteem on depression. Volunteer activity had a negative indirect effect through meaning of life, meaning of life and self-esteem on depression. Health status had a negative direct and a negative indirect effect through meaning of life, meaning of life and self-esteem on depression. Economic status had a negative indirect effect through perceived life stress on depression. Self-esteem was the most significant variable.

  2. Volunteer activity(γ11=.43, t=6.78) and health status(γ12=.35, t=4.88) had positive direct effect on meaning of life.

  3. Meaning of life(β21=.50, t=6.53) had a positive direct effect on self-esteem. Volunteer activity had a positive indirect effect through meaning of life on self-esteem. Health status had a positive direct(γ22=.18, t=2.23) and a indirect effect through meaning of life on self-esteem. Meaning of life was the most significant variable.

  4. Economic status(γ33=-.44. t=-6.01) had a positive direct effect on perceived life stress.

The results of this study showed that self-esteem had the most significant direct effect on depression. Meaning of life and health status had significant direct effect on this self-esteem. Volunteer activity and health status had direct effect on meaning of life.

The results of this study suggested that there is a need to develope intervention to promote degree of self-esteem and alleviate degree of depression in middle-aged women.

Keywords: Middle-aged women; Depression; Meaning of life; Self-esteem; Perceived life stress