Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.58(2) > 1126757

Eun: Basics of Electroencephalography for Neuropsychiatrist

Abstract

In 1924, Hans Berger, a German psychiatrist, recorded the brain waves from a human brain for the first time. Many advances have been made in this field since then. Currently, brain waves are generated by a variety of computer technologies, including brain computer interface technology, and robot or artificial intelligence technology has also made amazing progress. A mental health practitioner who deals with brain-related medicine has an obligation and responsibility to research and find clinical applications of brain waves because they contain a great deal of information hidden in the brain. Therefore, understanding the basics of electroencephalography will contribute to a determination and resolution of various clinical situations. This review discusses basic knowledge before dealing with brain waves. In addition to a visual inspection of general brain waves, quantitative analysis of brain waves is expected to become an important area of interest for mental health practitioners.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Montage maps and polarity of EEG. Spectral peaks montage maps. Lines correspond to subtractions used to calculate spectral peaks (A). Monopolar derivation of EEG (B). Bipolar derivation of EEG and phase reversal (C). G1 : Input terminal 1, G2 : Input terminal 2, EEG : Electoencephalography.

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Fig. 2

International 10–20 system and electrode placement for neonatal recording (modified). The International 10–20 system and electrode placement modified for neonates. Some laboratories use an alternative location for the position of the frontal polar electrodes. The ‘Fp3’ is located halfway between the locations of FP1 and F3. The ‘Fp4’ is halfway between the positions of FP2 and F4. Note also that not all laboratories utilize the Pz electrode.34344)

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Fig. 3

Modified combinatorial nomenclature for the 10–10 system. Adapted from Acharya et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 2016;33:308–311.47)

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Fig. 4

International 10–20 electoencephalography system.7)

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Fig. 5

Electrode placements by international 10–20 electoencephalography system.

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Fig. 6

An example of analysis result of quantitative electroencephalography.

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Fig. 7

Examples of normal and abnormal EEG. EEG : Electoencephalography.

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Table 1

Standard LB Montages*

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*10–10 electrode position nomenclature with 10–20 nomenclature in parentheses. Adapted from Acharya et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 2016;33:312–316.40) ECG : Electrocardiogram, LB : Longitudinal bipolar

Table 2

Standard TB Montages*

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*10–10 electrode position nomenclature with 10–20 nomenclature in parentheses. Adapted from Acharya et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 2016;33:312–316.40) ECG : Electrocardiogram, TB : Transverse bipolar

Table 3

Standard Referential Montages-Ear Reference*

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*10–10 electrode position nomenclature with 10–20 nomenclature in parentheses. Adapted from Acharya et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 2016;33:312–316.40) ECG : Electrocardiogram

Table 4

Suggested Referential Montages-Cz Reference*

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*10–10 electrode position nomenclature with 10–20 nomenclature in parentheses. Adapted from Acharya et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 2016;33:312–316.40) ECG : Electrocardiogram

Table 5

Neonatal montage examples

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10–10 system nomenclature, with 10–20 system nomenclature in parentheses. Adapted from Kuratani et al. J Clin Neurophysiol 2016;33:320–323.45) ECG : Electrocardiogram, EMG : Electromyography

Table 6

Electrode numbers and position names (10–20) related to anatomical positions in brain

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Table 7

Comparison of electroencephalography bands

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Table 8

Developmental features of neonatal EEG

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CA : Conceptional age, EEG : Electoencephalography, REM : Rapid eye movement, NREM : Nonrapid eye movement

Table 9

Items to include in an EEG report

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Adapted from Kaplan et al. Neurology 2013;80:S43–S46.99) EEG : Electroencephalography, ECG : Electrocardiogram, EMG : Electromyography

Notes

Conflicts of Interest The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.

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