Journal List > Dement Neurocogn Disord > v.11(4) > 1120789

Dement Neurocogn Disord. 2012 Dec;11(4):111-117. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2012.  https://doi.org/10.12779/dnd.2012.11.4.111
Copyright© 2012 Korean Dementia Association
Vitamin D Deficiency and Cognitive Dysfunction
Yeonsil Moon, M.D.,* and Seol-Heui Han, M.D.*,
*Department of Neurology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Address for correspondence: Seol-Heui Han, M.D. Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2030-7561, Fax: +82-2-2030-7469, Email: alzdoc@kuh.ac.kr
Received Aug 28, 2012; Revised Oct 25, 2012; Accepted Nov 18, 2012.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Vitamin D is not a true vitamin but a fat-soluble steroid prohormone that has long been known for its important and diverse role in the biological system. Many studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is linked with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type II diabetes and infectious diseases. Vitamin D3 is transformed to its active form, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, through metabolisms in the liver and kidney. 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 interacts with its vitamin D receptor, and the brain is now known to have vitamin D receptors and 1α-hydroxylase. Several lines of evidences suggest vitamin D deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, however, its position in cognitive function is still in its infancy. Vitamin D deficiency is a reversible condition and can be easily treated with supplements. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in patients with neurodegenerative conditions are needed.

Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency; Cognition; Alzheimer's disease (AD)

Tables


Table 1
Major studies of the association between Vitamin D and cognitive decline or dementia
Click for larger image

References
1. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357:266–281.
2. Eyles DW, Smith S, Kinobe R, Hewison M, McGrath JJ. Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. J Chem Neuroanat 2005;29:21–30.
3. Choi HS, Oh HJ, Choi H, Choi WH, Kim JG, Kim KM, et al. Vitamin D insufficiency in korea--a greater threat to younger generation: the korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) 2008. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:643–651.
4. Norval M, Wulf HC. Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels? Br J Dermatol 2009;161:732–736.
5. Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:204–210.
6. Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: report brief. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 2010.
7. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:18–28.
8. Nimitphong H, Holick MF. Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetence. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14:7–14.
9. DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1689S–1696S.
10. Lai JK, Lucas RM, Clements MS, Harrison SL, Banks E. Assessing vitamin D status: pitfalls for the unwary. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010;54:1062–1071.
11. Souberbielle JC, Body JJ, Lappe JM, Plebani M, Shoenfeld Y, Wang TJ, et al. Vitamin D and musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity and cancer: recommendations for clinical practice. Autoimmun Rev 2010;9:709–715.
12. Evatt ML, Delong MR, Khazai N, Rosen A, Triche S, Tangpricha V. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in patients with parkinson disease and alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2008;65:1348–1352.
13. Buell JS, Dawson-Hughes B, Scott TM, Weiner DE, Dallal GE, Qui WQ, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services. Neurology 2010;74:18–26.
14. Holick MF. Vitamin D: Evolutionary, physiological and health perspectives. Curr Drug Targets 2011;12:4–18.
15. Kim YJ, Moon MS, Yang YJ, Kwon O. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and the risksof metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Korean J Nutr 2012;45:20–29.
16. Gouveri E, Papanas N, Hatzitolios AI, Maltezos E. Hypovitaminosis D and peripheral arterial disease: emerging link beyond cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Intern Med 2012;23:674–681.
17. Simon KC, Munger KL, Ascherio A. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: epidemiology, immunology, and genetics. Curr Opin Neurol 2012;25:246–251.
18. Raftery T, O'Morain C, O'Sullivan M. Vitamin D: New roles and therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Drug Metab. 2012 Apr 10;
[Epub ahead of print].
19. Black LJ, Seamans KM, Cashman KD, Kiely M. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D food fortification. J Nutr 2012;142:1102–1108.
20. Hathcock JN, Shao A, Vieth R, Heaney R. Risk assessment for vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:6–18.
21. Kalueff AV, Tuohimaa P. Neurosteroid hormone vitamin D and its utility in clinical nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007;10:12–19.
22. Prufer K, Veenstra TD, Jirikowski GF, Kumar R. Distribution of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor immunoreactivity in the rat brain and spinal cord. J Chem Neuroanat 1999;16:135–145.
23. Annweiler C, Schott AM, Berrut G, Chauvire V, Le Gall D, Inzitari M, et al. Vitamin D and ageing: neurological issues. Neuropsychobiology 2010;62:139–150.
24. Etgen T, Sander D, Bickel H, Sander K, Forstl H. Vitamin d deficiency, cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2012;33:297–305.
25. Brown J, Bianco JI, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett 2003;343:139–143.
26. Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion D. New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002;13:100–105.
27. Riaz S, Malcangio M, Miller M, Tomlinson DR. A vitamin D(3) derivative (CB1093) induces nerve growth factor and prevents neurotrophic deficits in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetologia 1999;42:1308–1313.
28. Gezen-Ak D, Dursun E, Ertan T, Hanagasi H, Gurvit H, Emre M, et al. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and alzheimer's disease. Tohoku J Exp Med 2007;212:275–282.
29. Masoumi A, Goldenson B, Ghirmai S, Avagyan H, Zaghi J, Abel K, et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 interacts with curcuminoids to stimulate amyloid-beta clearance by macrophages of alzheimer's disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis 2009;17:703–717.
30. Taniura H, Ito M, Sanada N, Kuramoto N, Ohno Y, Nakamichi N, et al. Chronic vitamin D3 treatment protects against neurotoxicity by glutamate in association with upregulation of vitamin D receptor mRNA expression in cultured rat cortical neurons. J Neurosci Res 2006;83:1179–1189.
31. Lin AM, Chen KB, Chao PL. Antioxidative effect of vitamin D3 on zinc-induced oxidative stress in CNS. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1053:319–329.
32. McGrath J, Scragg R, Chant D, Eyles D, Burne T, Obradovic D. No association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level and performance on psychometric tests in NHANES III. Neuroepidemiology 2007;29:49–54.
33. Oudshoorn C, Mattace-Raso FU, van der Velde N, Colin EM, van der Cammen TJ. Higher serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with better cognitive test performance in patients with alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;25:539–543.
34. Buell JS, Scott TM, Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Rosenberg IH, Folstein MF, et al. Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009;64:888–895.
35. Llewellyn DJ, Langa KM, Lang IA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2009;22:188–195.
36. Lee DM, Tajar A, Ulubaev A, Pendleton N, O'Neill TW, O'Connor DB, et al. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older european men. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009;80:722–729.
37. Annweiler C, Schott AM, Allali G, Bridenbaugh SA, Kressig RW, Allain P, et al. Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study. Neurology 2010;74:27–32.
38. Seamans KM, Hill TR, Scully L, Meunier N, Andrillo-Sanchez M, Polito A, et al. Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older european adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:1172–1178.
39. Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, Muniz-Terrera G, Phillips CL, Cherubini A, et al. Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1135–1141.
40. Jorde R, Waterloo K, Saleh F, Haug E, Svartberg J. Neuropsychological function in relation to serum parathyroid hormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. the tromso study. J Neurol 2006;253:464–470.
41. Slinin Y, Paudel ML, Taylor BC, Fink HA, Ishani A, Canales MT, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance and decline in elderly men. Neurology 2010;74:33–41.
42. Slinin Y, Paudel M, Taylor BC, Ishani A, Rossom R, Yaffe K, et al. Association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D and the risk of cognitive decline in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012;67:1092–1098.
43. Annweiler C, Rolland Y, Schott AM, Blain H, Vellas B, Herrmann FR, et al. Higher vitamin D dietary intake is associated with lower risk of alzheimer's disease: a 7-year follow-up. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012;67:1205–1211.
44. Dickens AP, Lang IA, Langa KM, Kos K, Llewellyn DJ. Vitamin D, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in older adults. CNS Drugs 2011;25:629–639.
45. Dhesi JK, Jackson SH, Bearne LM, Moniz C, Hurley MV, Swift CG, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing 2004;33:589–595.
46. Przybelski R, Agrawal S, Krueger D, Engelke JA, Walbrun F, Binkley N. Rapid correction of low vitamin D status in nursing home residents. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:1621–1628.
47. Annweiler C, Herrmann FR, Fantino B, Brugg B, Beauchet O. Effectiveness of the combination of memantine plus vitamin D on cognition in patients with alzheimer disease: a pre-post pilot study. Cogn Behav Neurol 2012;25:121–127.