Journal List > Dement Neurocogn Disord > v.11(3) > 1120788

Dement Neurocogn Disord. 2012 Sep;11(3):104-110. Korean.
Published online Sep 30, 2012.
Copyright© 2012 Korean Dementia Association
Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson's Disease According to Cognitive Function
Im-Tae Han, M.D., Choong Kun Ha, M.D., Chang-Gi Hong, M.D., Jun Yong Choi, M.D., Jong-Hyun Ahn, M.D., Jeong Jin Park, M.D., Na Young Ryoo, M.D., Byung-Nam Yoon, M.D. and Seong Hye Choi, M.D.
Department of Neurology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Address for correspondence: Seong Hye Choi, MD. Department of Neurology, Inha University School of Medicine, 27 Inhang-ro, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-711, Korea. Tel: +82-32-890-3659, Fax: +82-32-890-3864, Email:
Received Jun 26, 2012; Revised Aug 07, 2012; Accepted Aug 07, 2012.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms such as cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD according to cognitive function.


One hundred twenty seven patients with PD were consecutively recruited. They had undergone an intensive interview with a neurologist and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-dementia version, and were divided into three groups: 27 patients in PD with normal cognition (PDNC), 57 in PD with mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI), and 43 in PD with Dementia (PDD). Forty five healthy controls without memory complaints were also recruited. The caregivers of all participants administered the Caregiver-Administered Neuropsychiatric Inventory (CGA-NPI).


There were significant differences in the CGA-NPI score (22.8±20.9 vs. 6.4±10.1 vs. 1.7±3.9 vs. 1.0±1.6, p<0.001), and the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (100% vs. 64.9% vs. 37.0% vs. 44.4%, p<0.001) among PDD, PDMCI, PDNC and control groups. Depression was the most common symptom (43.3%), followed by anxiety (31.5%), apathy (26.8%), and night-time behavior (26.8%) in all PD patients. Delusion, hallucination, and aberrant motor behavior were observed frequently in PDD, but were rare in PDMCI.


Depression was the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in PD. The presence of delusion, hallucination, or aberrant motor behavior may suggest PDD. The neuropsychiatric symptoms were not prevalent in PD with normal cognition.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Cognitive impairment; Neuropsychiatric symptoms


Fig. 1
Prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in the patients with dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PPD), those with PD with mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI), those with PD with normal cognition (PDNC), and normal controls.

*Items which were significantly different among four groups (p<0.05).

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Table 1
Clinical characteristics of the patients with dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PPD), those with PD with mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI), those with PD with normal cognition (PDNC), and normal controls
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Table 2
Subscale scores of CGA-NPI in patients with PDD, PDMCI, and PDNC, and controls
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Table 3
Prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in patients with PDD, PDMCI, and PDNC, and controls
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