Journal List > Dement Neurocogn Disord > v.13(4) > 1120746

Dement Neurocogn Disord. 2014 Dec;13(4):94-100. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2014.
© 2014 Korean Dementia Association
A Comparison of the Performances on the MMSE, HDS-R, and MoCA According to the CDR Sum of Boxes in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment
Bohye Kim,* and Yeonwook Kang, Ph.D.*,
*Department of Psychology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.
Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea.

Address for correspondence: Yeonwook Kang, Ph.D. Department of Psychology, Hallym University, 39 Hallymdaehakgil, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea. Tel: +82-33-248-1724, Fax: +82-33-256-3424, Email:
Received Nov 20, 2014; Revised Dec 23, 2014; Accepted Dec 23, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



O'Bryant et al. (2008) argued that the CDR Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) can be used to distinguish MCI from very early dementia in patients with CDR-GS of 0.5. They reported that the optimal CDR-SB cut-off score was 2.5. The present study was conducted to examine whether the subgroups classified with CDR-SB scores showed the corresponding group differences on the cognitive tests.


The subjects were 45 amnestic multi-domain MCI (amMCI) and 53 vascular MCI (VaMCI) with CDR-GS of 0.5. Each patient group was classified into "mild (0.5-2.0)" and "severe (2.5-4.0)" subgroups based on the CDR-SB. As the result, 4 groups were formed such as mild amMCI (n=23), severe amMCI (n=22), mild VaMCI (n=29), and severe VaMCI (n=24). The subjects were given the MMSE, HDS-R, and MoCA. The MANCOVA was conducted separately for each test with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.


Severe groups of both amMCI and VaMCI showed significantly lower performances than two mild groups in MMSE, HDS-R, and MoCA. It was found that "serial 100-7" was a good item to discriminate between the mild and severe groups in both amMCI and VaMCI. Items measuring "orientation" or "naming" showed significant subgroup differences in the amMCI, whereas items related to "memory," "visuospatial construction," or "frontal/executive function" showed significant subgroup differences in the VaMCI.


These results showed that there were significant differences in cognitive functions between the two subgroups with CDR-GS of 0.5. The results about the items discriminating between subgroups in amMCI and VaMCI were consistent with the previous findings about the progression of cognitive impairments in AD and VaD. Therefore, these results support the use of CDR-SB as a guideline for distinguishing MCI from early dementia.

Keywords: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI); Dementia; Clinical Dementia Rating Global Score (CDR-GS); Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB); Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R); Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)


Table 1
Demographic characteristics of the subjects
Click for larger image

Table 2
Group differences in the K-MMSE, K-HDS-R, & K-MoCA
Click for larger image

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