Journal List > Dement Neurocogn Disord > v.13(4) > 1120735

Dement Neurocogn Disord. 2014 Dec;13(4):107-111. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.12779/dnd.2014.13.4.107
© 2014 Korean Dementia Association
The Effect of Group Musical Therapy on Depression and Activities on Daily Living in Patients with Cognitive Decline
Hyun Jeong Han, M.D.,* Sang Joon Son, M.D., Juwon Ha, M.D., Jee Hee Lee,§ Sun Ae Kim, RN,* and So Young Lee, Ph.D.
*Department of Neurology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
§Department of Public Health and Healthcare Service, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
Center of Arts and Healing, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Address for correspondence: So Young Lee, Ph.D. Center of Arts and Healing, Myongji Hospital, 55 Hwasu-ro 14beon-gil, Deogyang-gu, Goyang 412-270, Korea. Tel: +82-31-810-5446, Fax: +82-31-969-0500, Email: leesoyoung26@naver.com
Received Nov 18, 2014; Revised Nov 26, 2014; Accepted Nov 26, 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Background

Beside pharmacological treatment, non-pharmacological interventions are a great deal of interest resides on ways that allow modulation of brain plasticity in the elderly. Music therapy is a potential non-pharmacological treatment for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, but a few studies reported it to be helpful. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured musical intervention therapy in patient with cognitive decline.

Methods

The subjects of the study were a total of fifty elderly with cognitive decline (K-MMSE: 21±3.99, CDR: 0.80±0.38). The musical therapy was applied to the group twice a week, fifty minutes per session for eight weeks. The data were analyzed by using chi-square and paired t-test before and after musical intervention.

Results

The study showed a significant reduction in depression and anxiety after musical therapy measured with short form-GDS and BDI (p<0.001). Activities daily living (ADL) markedly improved after the all session of musical interventions (p<0.001).

Conclusion

Group music therapy is a safe and effective method for treating depression and anxiety, and also improving ADL in patients with cognitive decline.

Keywords: Music therapy; Mild cognitive impairment; Alzheimer's disease

Figures


Fig. 1
The neuropsychological results after musical intervention in patients with cognitive decline. (*p<0.001) GDS, geriatric depression scale; BAI, Beck anxiety inventory; S-IADL, Seoul-instrumental activities daily living.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Clinical characteristics of patients with MCI and AD
Click for larger image


Table 2
Comparison between baseline and follow-up evaluation
Click for larger image

References
1. Wino A, Jonsson L, Bond J, Prince M, Windbald B. The worldwide economic impact of dementia. Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:1–11.
2. Ritchie CW, Ames D, Clayton T, Lai R. Metaanalysis of randomized trials of the efficacy and safety of donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Geriatr psychiatry 2004;12:358–368.
3. Reisberg B, Doody R, Stoffler A, Schmitt F, Ferris S, Mobius HJ. Memantine study group. Memantine in moderate-severe Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med 2006;348:1333–1341.
4. Schecker M, Pimay-Dummer P, Schmidtke K, Hentrich-Hesse T, Borchardt D. Cognitive interventions in mild Alzheimer's disease: a therapy-evaluation study on the intervention of medication and cognitive treatment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 2013;24:301–311.
5. Chancellor B, Duncan A, Chatterjee A. Art therapy for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. J Alzheimers Dis 2014;38:359–369.
6. Vasionyte I, Madison G. Musical intervention for patients with dementia: a meta-analysis. J Clin Nurs 2013;22:1203–1216.
7. Sim HM, Chung SH. The effect of music therapy on cognitive function, behavioral and emotion of dementia elderly. J Korean Acad Adult Nurs 2001;13:591–600.
8. Brotons M, Koger SM, Pickett-Cooper P. Music and dementias: a review of literature. Jr Music Ther 1997;34:204–245.
9. Chu H, Yang CY, Lin Y, Ou KL, Lee TY, O'Brien AP, et al. The impact of group music therapy on depression and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a randomized controlled study. Biol Res Nurs 2014;16:209–217.
10. Petersen RC, Doody R, Kurz A, Mohs RC, Morris JC, Rabins PV, et al. Current concepts in mild cognitive disorder. Arch Neurol 2001;58:1985–1992.
11. McKhann G, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadian EM. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of department of health and human services task force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1984;34:6.
12. Jc M. Clinical dementia rating: a reliable and valid diagnostic and staging measure for dementia of the Alzheimer type. Int Psychogeriatr 1997;9:4.
13. Kang YW, Na DL. In: Seoul neuropsychological screening battery. Incheon: Human Brain Research & Consulting Co.; 2003.
14. Kang Y. A normative study of the Korean-Mini State Examination (K-MMSE) in the elderly. Korean J Psychol 2006;25:12.
15. Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1982;17(1):37–49.
16. Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56:893–897.
17. Ku HM, Kim JH, Kwon EJ, Kim SH, Lee HS, Ko HJ, et al. A study on the reliability and validity of Seoul-instrumental activities of daily living (S-IADL). J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 2004;43:189–199.
18. Hong YG, Kang YS. The effect of music therapy on cognitive function and behavioral problems in dementia elderly. J Korean Gerontol Nurs 2009;11:5–15.
19. Lee YM, Park NH. The effect of dementia prevention program on cognition, depression, self-esteem and quality of life in the elderly with mild cognitive disorder. J Korean Acad Adults Nurs 2007;19:787–796.
20. Kosteniuk JG, Morgan DG, O'Connell ME, Crossley M, Kirk A, Stewart NJ, et al. Prevalence and covariates of elevated depressive symptoms in rural memory clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 2014;4:209–220.
21. Steffens DC, McQuoid DR, Potter GG. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment and incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease in geriatric depression. Int Psychogeriatr 2014;26:2029–2036.
22. Han P, Kwan M, Chen D, Yusoff SZ, Chio HL, Goh J, et al. A controlled naturalistic study on a weekly music therapy and activity program on disruptive and depressive behaviors in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cog Dis 2010;30:540–546.
23. Ziv N, Granot A, Hai S, Dassa A, Haimov I. The effect of background simulative music on behavior in Alzheimer's patients. J Music Ther 2007;44:329–343.
24. Svansdottir HB, Snaedal J. Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer's type: a case-control study. Int Psychogeriatr 2006;18:613–621.
25. Raglio A, Oasi O, Gianotti M, Manzoni V, Bolis S, Ubezio Mc, et al. Effects of music therapy on psychological symptoms and heart rate variability in patients with dementia. A pilot study. Current Aging Science 2010;3:242–246.
26. Okada K, Kurita A, Takese B, Otsuka T, Kadani E, Kusama Y, et al. Effects of music therapy on autonomic nervous system activity, incidence of heart failure events, and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with cerebravascular disease and dementia. Inter Heart Jr 2009;50:95–110.
27. Suzuki M, Kanamori M, Nagasawa S, Takayuki S. Music therapy induced changes in behavioral evaluations, and saliva chromogranin A and immunoglobulin A concentrations in elderly patients with senile dementia. Geriatr Geronto Inter 2007;7:61–71.