Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.49(1) > 1117327

Kim, Song, Kim, Jang, Hong, Kim, and Shin: Validity and Reliability of a Korean Version of Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (YFAS-C)



This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (YFAS-C).


Participants were 419 young adolescent students (11~15 years old). The content validity of the expert group was calculated as the content validity index (CVI) after the translation and reverse translation process of the 25 items of the YFAS-C. The multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM) method was used to verify the construct validity; the generalized linear model (GLM) was used to evaluate the concurrent and incremental validity. Reliability was calculated as Kuder-Richardson-20 (KR-20) and Spearman-Brown coefficients.


The CVI of the 25 items was greater than the item-level CVI .80 and the scale-level CVI .90. The Korean version of YFAS-C had verified convergent validity in emotional eating and external eating and discriminant validity in restrained eating. In addition, it had verified concurrent validity in emotional eating and external eating. Finally the incremental validity of the Korean version of YFAS-C was statistically significant on BMI. Reliability was KR-20 a=.69 and the Spearman-Brown coefficient was .64.


The Korean version of YFAS-C is a valid and reliable scale for measuring the severity of food addiction; it can be a useful scale for preventing obesity by predicting food addiction early.


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Table 1.
Characteristics of Particip pants (N=417)
Variables M SD Minimum Maximum Skewness Kurtosis
Age (yr) 13.74 1.27 11.00 15.00 0.56 -0.55
Height (cm) 157.21 9.16 128.00 184.00 -0.16 0.59
Weight (Kg) 49.32 10.40 24.00 83.00 0.55 0.52
BMI (Kg/m2) 19.79 2.90 13.42 27.73 0.52 -0.05
Restrained eating 2.34 1.05 1.00 5.00 0.41 -0.68
Emotional eating 1.62 0.79 1.00 5.00 1.44 1.67
External eating 2.84 0.98 1.00 5.00 0.13 -0.51
Food addiction symptoms 0.99 1.26 0.00 6.00 0.15 1.88

BMI=Body Mass Index; M=mean; SD=Standard Deviation.

Table 2.
Endorsement Rates for YFAS-C Symptoms (N=417)
Met Did not meet
Sub-domain of YFAS-C symptom symptom
n (%) n (%)
Large amount of time spent 39 (9.4) 378 (90.6)
Persistent desire 119 (28.5) 298 (71.5)
Activity to obtain, use, recover 14 (3.4) 403 (96.6)
Given up activities 63 (15.1) 354 (84.9)
Inability to cut down 66 (15.8) 351 (84.2)
Tolerance 74 (17.7) 343 (82.3)
Withdrawal 38 (9.1) 379 (90.9)
Clinically impairment or distress 25 (6.0) 392 (94.0)
Addiction symptoms≥3†† 52 (12.5) 365 (87.5)

YFAS-C=Yale Food addiction Scale for Children.

Clinically significant impairment or distress in the last 12 months were classified as meeting the criteria for food addiction

†† Three or more food addiction symptoms were classified as the food addiction risk group.

Table 3.
Correlation between Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction Symptoms (N=417)
Variables Restrained eating Emotional eating External eating
r (p)
Restrained eating 1
Emotional eating .11 (.020) 1
External eating -.04 (.451) .48 (<.001) 1
Food addiction symptoms .11 (.020) .39 (<.001) . 31 (<.001)
Table 4.
Concurrent Validity for Food Addiction High Risk Group (N=417)
Variables b S.E c2 (df) p
Constants -9.19 2.05 20.05 (1) <.001
Restrained eating -0.25 0.38 0.43 (1) .513
Emotional eating 0.82 0.39 4.46 (1) .035
External eating 1.01 0.47 4.30 (1) .038

S.E=Standard Error; df=degree of freedom.

Table 5.
Incremental Validity for BMI (N=417)
Variables b S.E c2 (df) p AIC
Model 1
   Restrained eating 0.87 0.50 298.61 (1) <.001
   Emotional eating -0.14 0.08 3.42 (1) .064 3946.16
   External eating -0.15 0.07 4.36 (1) .037
Model 2
   Restrained eating 0.85 0.50 284.54 (1) <.001
   Emotional eating -0.21 0.80 6.59 (1) .010 3938.92
   External eating -0.19 0.72 6.87 (1) .009
   Food addiction symptoms 0.13 0.04 9.24 (1) .002

S.E=Standard Error; df=degree of freedom; AIC=Akaike Information Criterion; BMI=Body Mass Index.

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