Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs > v.48(6) > 1111061

J Korean Acad Nurs. 2018 Dec;48(6):656-668. Korean.
Published online Dec 31, 2018.
© 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Development and Effects of Combined Exercise Program for Older Adults with Sarcopenia Based on Transtheoretical Model
Seoyoun Park,1 and Mee Ock Gu2
1Department of Nursing, Daegu Science University, Daegu, Korea.
2College of Nursing · Gerontological Health Research Center in Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.

Address reprint requests to: Gu, Mee Ock. College of Nursing · Gerontological Health Research Center in Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, 816-15 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52727, Korea. Tel: +82-55-772-8226, Fax: +82-55-772-8222, Email:
Received Jun 12, 2018; Revised Oct 24, 2018; Accepted Oct 24, 2018.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivs License. ( If the original work is properly cited and retained without any modification or reproduction, it can be used and re-distributed in any format and medium.



The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the effects of combined exercise program for older adults with sarcopenia based on transtheoretical model (TTM).


A non-equivalent control group with a pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects consisted of 43 older adults with sarcopenia in precontemplation stage, contemplation stage and preparation stage of TTM (experimental group: 22, control group: 21). The developed program consisted of 36 sessions for 12 weeks including combined exercise (60 minutes) and TTM based strategies for enhancing exercise behavior (10 minutes) per session. Data were collected before, immediately after the program between July 31 to October 27, 2017. The data were analyzed using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test with SPSS/WIN 18.0.


Compared with their counterparts in the control groups, older adults with sarcopenia in the experimental group showed a significantly greater improvement in process of exercise behavior change, pros and cons of decisional balance for exercise behavior, exercise self-efficacy, parameters of muscle, and the level of physical performance.


The study findings indicate that this combined exercise program for older adults with sarcopenia based on TTM model was effective and can be recommended as a nursing intervention for older adults with sarcopenia.

Keywords: Sarcopenia; Aged; Exercise; Muscles; Self efficacy


Table 1
Combined Exercise Program for Older Adults with Sarcopenia Based on TTM
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Table 2
Homogeneity of General Characteristics between Groups (N=43)
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Table 3
Homogeneity of Dependent Variables between Groups (N=43)
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Table 4
Effects of Combined Exercise Program Based on TTM for Older Adults with Sarcopenia (N=43)
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This manuscript is based on a part of the first author' doctoral dissertation from Gyeongsang National University.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:The authors declared no conflict of interest.

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