Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs Adm > v.24(4) > 1102135

Heo and Jung: Analysis of Research Trends in Korean Medical and Nursing Service Marketing



This study was designed to examine existing research on service marketing in nursing and identify the results by analyzing research trends in medical and nursing service marketing over the last 15 years.


Electronic databases were searched, including RISS, Korea Citation Index. The papers were classified by criteria, focusing on research topics, research design and statistical analysis method.


From 2002 to 2016, 221 research articles on medical or nursing service marketing were published in local academic journals. Most of the articles were about service quality and satisfaction. Generally questionnaire surveys were used. There were 34 papers related to nursing service marketing. Most of them were about satisfaction and had used a questionnaire survey.


Further research needs to be done with nursing service marketing topics including a variety of themes such as personal services and customer behaviors.


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Table 1.
Research Topics Reclassification and Number per Year
Keywords Years Total
2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 2 0 1 6 n(%)
CRM, Relationship marketing 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 10(4.5)
Word of mouth 1 1 2(0.9)
Managing waiting time 1 1 2(0.9)
Satisfaction 2 4 2 4 3 3 1 5 1 5 5 1 2 4 3 45(20.4)
Visit 2 1 1 4(1.8)
Complaints, Dissatisfaction, Service recovery/Failure 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 9(4.1)
Service quality 4 1 6 4 7 4 5 14 5 7 9 13 6 6 5 96(43.4)
Service encounter 1 1 1 1 1 2 7(3.2)
Selection 3 2 1 1 3 1 5 4 2 3 3 3 31(14.0)
Trust 1 1 1 2 1 6(2.7)
Human services 1 1 2(0.9)
Loyalty 1 1 1 1 1 2 7(3.2)
Total (N) 7 7 11 10 13 10 10 27 14 25 21 19 13 15 19 221(100.0)

CRM=Customer relationship management.

Table 2.
Topics and Number of Medical and Nursing Service Marketing Research per Year
Items Categories Nursing Medical Total
Yes* No
Years 2002 2 2 3 7
2003 1 0 6 7
2004 1 1 9 11
2005 2 3 5 10
2006 1 1 11 13
2007 0 1 9 10
2008 0 1 9 10
2009 2 3 22 27
2010 0 0 14 14
2011 1 1 23 25
2012 0 2 19 21
2013 0 2 17 19
2014 1 0 12 13
2015 2 1 12 15
2016 2 1 16 19
Total 15 19 187 221
Keywords CRM, Relationship marketing 0 0 10 10
Word of mouth 0 0 2 2
Managing waiting time 0 0 2 2
Satisfaction 8 13 24 45
Visit 0 0 4 4
Complaints, Dissatisfaction, 0 1 8 9
Service recovery/Failure
Service quality 6 3 85 94
Service encounter 0 0 9 9
Selection 0 1 30 31
Trust 1 0 5 6
Human services 0 1 1 2
Loyalty 0 0 7 7
Total 15 19 187 221

*Nursing services included;

Nursing service not included; CRM=Customer relationship management.

Table 3.
Research Design and Statistical Analysis Method
Items Categories n(%)
Research design Survey Secondary data 203(91.8) 9(4.1)
FGI (Focus Group Interview) 3(1.4)
Literature research+survey 1(0.5)
Case study 3(1.4)
Experimental study 2(0.8)
Statistical analysis method SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences): t-test, Correlation, Regression Analysis, etc. 104(47.1)
Confirmatory factor analysis, Structural equation analysis, etc.
AMOS (Analysis of MOment Structures) 81 (36.5)
LISREL (LInear Structural RELations) 9 (4.1)
SAS (Statistical Analysis System) 8 (3.6)
PLS (Partial Least Square) 2 (0.8)
Stata 1 (0.5)
APT (Association Pattern Technique) laddering method 1(0.5)
Decision tree analysis 4(1.7)
Analytic hierarchy process 1(0.5)
Visualize, CIT (Critical Incidents Technique) 1(0.5)
SPSS/ IPA (Importance-Performance Analysis) 7(3.2)
Case study 1(0.5)
SPSS/ Kano 1(0.5)
Total 221(100.0)
Table 4.
Nursing Service Marketing Research Analysis
Author(s) (year) Keyword Participants (N) Title Research variable Key findings
Nursing Service Marketing 15
Heo EJ, Jung MS. (2016), [A1] Trust Patients (N=266) The effects of nurses' competencies in medical services on clients' nursing trust and loyalty Nurse competence Nursing trust Loyalty All nurse qualities, except empathic ability, have significant effects on trust in nursing and, through nursing satisfaction, on loyalty to hospital.
Song CS, SEO MS, Nam SM, Park SH, Oh MS, Han KH, Hyum MS. (2009), [A2] Satisfaction Patients (N=167) Patient satisfaction related to increased nursing personnel staffing Nursing satisfaction In any of the two periods, score for nursing satisfaction was highest in therapeutic nursing and lowest in educational nursing.
Lee MA, Kim IH, Baek SH. (2003), [A3] Satisfaction Patients (N=227) Perceived consumer satisfaction with nursing and medical service and hospital revisit intent Nursing satisfaction Medical satisfaction Intent to revisit Consumers' perceived service satisfaction is higher in terms of nursing service compared to medical service. Nursing service satisfaction explain 45.9% of the medical service satisfaction and 32.5% of the revisit intention.
Wang MS, Lee ID, Kang MS, Cha EK, Chio DH (2014), [A4] Satisfaction Patients (N=69 (a), 66 (b)) Analysis on satisfaction of nursing services for elderly - hospitalized in attended ward (a) and general ward (b) Nursing satisfaction Patients on full-service wards are higher in satisfaction with nursing service than those on general wards. Former patients scored the reliability of nursing service higher (4.46/5 points) than any others.
Lee NY, Han JY, Heo MJ. (2015), [A5] Satisfaction Patients (N=105) Nurses (N=105) Comparison of satisfaction and need on nursing service perceived by the patients and nurses Nursing needs Nursing satisfaction Nurses are found to have good understanding on satisfying patients' needs for nursing. Total score for nursing satisfaction is higher on the part of patients. not nurses.
Seo HL, Eom HK, Seo YK, Chio MJ, Im SI, Shin SM, Lee MH. (2016), [A6] Satisfaction Patient family (N=270) Relationship among nurses' communication style, nursing service satisfaction, hospital service satisfaction perceived by patients' family and intent to revisit the hospital Nurse communication style Nursing satisfaction Hospital satisfaction Intention of revisit Information provision and friendly nursing positively affect nursing satisfaction. Nursing service satisfaction has a positive effect on hospital service satisfaction that in turn positively influence the intention to revisit.
Sun YO, Kwak SH, Kwon HJ. (2011). [A7] Satisfaction Patients (N=233) A study on nursing service satisfaction and intention to revisit and recommend hospital in inpatients Nursing service quality Nursing satisfaction Intention of revisit In most attributes of nursing service, consumers perceive the quality of that service is as much as they experience. In all attributes of nursing service, nurses perceive the quality of that service is low by rating negatives.
Shin SR, Park KY. (2015), [A8] Satisfaction Patients (N=90 (c), 88 (d)) Comparing satisfaction with nursing care and factors relevant to hospital revisit intent among hospitalized patients in comprehensive nursing care units (c) and general care units (d) Nursing satisfaction Intention of revisit Nursing satisfaction is higher for comprehensive nursing service wards than general wards, but with no statistically significant difference. Patients of the inclusive nursing service ward are higher in the intention to revisit than those of the general ward.
Moon IO, Lee MH, (2002), [A9] Satisfaction Patients, worker (total=921) The difference in medical and nursing service satisfaction between internal and external customers Nursing satisfaction Service satisfaction by internal customers are significantly higher than by external customers. Nursing service satisfaction is highest on the part of inpatients.
Lee MA, Yom YH. (2005), [A10] Service quality Patients (N=106) Nurse (N=94) A comparative study of consumers and providers on nursing service quality, satisfaction, and hospital revisiting intent Nursing quality Nursing satisfaction Intention of revisit Consumers perceive that the vast majority of properties have nursing services. In the case of nurses, all of the attributes are negative and nursing service is low.
Sung YH, Kwon IG, Kim MK. (2006), [A11] Service quality Patients (N=274) Nurse (N=295) A study on the perception gap in clinical nursing service between customers and providers Nursing quality Nursing satisfaction Intention of revisit No difference in nursing service exists between consumers and nurses. Consumers perceive that the overall quality of nursing service is low.
Kim KS, Ha EH. (2009), [A12] Service quality Patients (N=223) Nurse (N=239) Factors affecting quality of nursing services and intention to revisit as perceived by hospitalized patients and nurses in medium sized urban hospitals Nursing service quality Intention of revisit The expectations of nursing service are not different between nurses and patients. The performance of nursing service is perceived higher by patients than by nurses.
Kim JH, Lee IS. (2004), [A13] Service quality Patients (N=150) Nurse (N=167) The differences in quality perceptions, expectations, evaluation, and satisfaction for nursing service between patients and nurses: small-medium sized general hospitals Nursing service expectation Quality evaluation Satisfaction Nurses have high expectations of tangibles and empathy. Patients are high in responsiveness and nurses in assurance. In terms of service perception, patients feel they received more nursing services. Both groups are highest in assurance.
Lee MA. (2005), [A14] Service quality Patients (N=293) Nurse (N=298) A comparative study of how subjects' characteristics and nursing service quality influence on hospital revisiting intent between patients and nurses Nursing service quality Intention of revisit Nursing service quality is perceived higher by nurses than by patients. Among the factors of nursing service quality, “willingness to help” and “nursing in a high-quality facility” account for 17.9% of the revisit intention.
Lee MA. (2002), [A15] Service quality Patients (N=253) Study of the nursing service quality and satisfaction that admitted patients perceived: being used servqual Nursing service quality Satisfaction Consumers' expectations of nursing service are highest in terms of assurance, followed by responsiveness, empathy, tangibles and reliability.
Medical Marketing including Nursing Services 19
Kim JH, Park CM.. (2015), [A16] Service quality Patients +family (N=266) Worker (N=200) Improvement prioritization of health and medical service quality attributes using PCSI index Service quality Satisfaction The higher nurses' competence is, the higher medical service quality is.
Park YS, Song MJ. (2008), [A17] Service quality Patients (N=113) Importance of service quality factors affecting trust and satisfaction in medical service Service quality Satisfaction Trust Intention of revisit For nurses, the quality of outcome and that of interactions have significant effects on customers' trust, satisfaction and intention to revisit.
Ji KJ. (2013), [A18] Service quality Patients (N=950) A study on medical service quality affecting perceived value, satisfaction and intention of revisit in middle-sized hospitals Service quality Service value Satisfaction Intention of revisit Nurse qualities significantly influence inpatients' satisfaction.
Kim MR. (2007), [A19] Satisfaction Patients (N=692) Consumer satisfaction and behavioral intention for medical services Satisfaction Behavior intention The factor most important to consumer satisfaction is physicians, followed by nurses.
Kim MR. (2004), [A20] Satisfaction Patients (N=596) Factors that affect consumer satisfaction with medical services Medical services Satisfaction Consumers who use the general hospital are most satisfied with nurses, while those who use the clinic with facilities followed by nurses. Consumers' satisfaction with nurses are most influenced by their educational level.
Sung JA, Nam CH, Kim SW, Kim GS, Koo HJ, Yoo EJ. (2006), [A21] Satisfaction Patients (N=654) Patient's satisfaction with medical care services in hospital Satisfaction Medical services Hospital users' dissatisfaction is considerably influenced by personal factors of nurses.
Park SK. (2002), [A22] Satisfaction Patient, Worker (N=108 set) The causality among the internal customer satisfaction, the external customer satisfaction and the customer loyalty of medical service Satisfaction Loyalty More satisfaction by physicians and nurses lead to higher service quality and service loyalty.
Bae SK, Nam EW, Park JY. (2005), [A23] Satisfaction Secondary data A study on major factors on patient satisfaction of general hospitals in Korea Satisfaction The more positive the factors of nursing are, the higher patients' satisfaction is.
Jung SJ. (2012), [A24] Satisfaction Patients (N=320) A study of inpatient satisfaction levels at general hospitals Satisfaction Average score for service by nurses is highest (3.59/5 points in average). Service satisfaction has positive correlations with physicians and nurses.
Youn KI, Kang IH. (2009), [A25] Satisfaction Patients (N=234) The asymmetric relationship between hospital service attributes and patient satisfaction: an implication to important-performance analysis application Service attributes Satisfaction Service by nurses is classified as a factor of satisfaction. Being high in importance and performance, nurses are classified as belonging to the area of maintenance on the quadrant.
Chung JH, Han JH. (2009), [A26] Satisfaction Patient (N=10,240) The effects of the attribute-level satisfaction on the overall satisfaction and the mediation role of involvement in medical service Satisfaction The overall level of customer satisfaction gradually rose from 2000 through 2007. The most important factor for that level is satisfaction is nurses' skills in treatment.
Cho SN. (2009), [A27] ] Satisfaction Patients (N=543) Physicians and the satisfaction with medical services Satisfaction All factors affecting medical service satisfaction, except those related to physicians, are not statistically significant.
Jeong YS. (2005), [A28] Satisfaction Patients (N=165) Parent satisfaction with inpatient hospital services in children's hospitals Satisfaction Service satisfaction is highest in terms of nursing satisfaction.
Wang MS, Lim NY. (2013), [A29] Satisfaction Patients (N=310) The patient satisfaction of medical services and the revisiting intention in a public hospital Satisfaction Intention of revisit The major factor of customer satisfaction is nursing which was scored highest (4.18/5 points in average).
Choi EK, Kim SH, Jung SY, Jo EH, Choi KS, Sim SJ Mor MS et al (2011), [A30] i Satisfaction Patients (N=361) Expectation and satisfaction of parents with inpatient hospital service Satisfaction Among the areas of hospital service, nursing service is scored highest.
Jung SW, Seo YJ, Lee HJ, Lee KJ. (2005), [A31] Satisfaction Patients (N=870) Determinants of patient satisfaction and intent to revisit at national university hospitals in Korea Satisfaction Intention of revisit Nurses influence outpatients' intention to revisit, but not inpatients.
Kim JS, Eom AH, Yu MS. (2016), [A32] Complaints Patients (N=319) Medical convergence analysis of complaint about medical service in an affiliated hospital Satisfaction Complaint The biggest factor of dissatisfaction is poor description by nurses (49.1%).
Kim ST, Oh CO. (2012), [A33] Selection Patients (N=144) Factors that affect decisions for selecting hospitals and different awareness Factors affecting hospital selection Nurses consider the level of medicine and medical service as more important, while for patients, medical service and hospital environment and care givers reputation and recommendation are important.
Lee JC, Kim SH. (2002) [A34] Human services Patients (N=107) The relation of HRM service quality, consumer satisfaction and re-visitation in the hospital industry HRM, satisfaction Service quality Intention of revisit All types of personal service have a significant effect on customer satisfaction. The quality of service by nurses was the only factor significantly affecting the intention to revisit.
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