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Allergy Asthma Respir Dis. 2018 Jul;6(4):197-205. Korean.
Published online July 30, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.4168/aard.2018.6.4.197
© 2018 The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease; The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Relation of allergic rhinitis, allergen sensitization, and air pollutants in preschool children
Yoo-Jin Kim, Shin-Ae Yoon and Sung-Il Woo
Department of Pediatrics and Respiratory Disease Center, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.

Correspondence to: Sung-Il Woo. Department of Pediatrics and Respiratory Disease Center, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, 776 1(il)sunhwan-ro, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju 28644, Korea. Tel: +82-43-269-6045, Fax: +82-43-264-6620, Email: holydaywoo@hanmail.net
Received September 27, 2017; Revised November 03, 2017; Accepted November 03, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).


Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to investigate the prevalence and allergen sensitization of allergic rhinitis (AR) in preschool children. We assessed the relationship of AR, allergen sensitization, and air pollutants.

Methods

Between 2012 and 2016 in Jincheon, skin prick testing and questionnaire survey were performed on 2,958 children. AR have diagnosed on the basis of current symptoms and sign of AR on the Korean International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and 1 or more proven allergen sensitization.

Results

A total of 2,052 children completed survey and skin prick testing, and were included in the analysis. The prevalence of AR symptom within last 12 months and AR were 27.0% and 10.9%, respectively. During study, both prevalences were increased from 20.1% and 8.6%, respectively in 2012 to 29.1% and 12.8%, respectively in 2016. The total inhalant allergen sensitization rate was 32.6%. The most common inhalant allergen was Dermatophagoides farinae (23.1%), followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (22.5%), tree pollens (5.3%), weed pollens (5.2%), fungi (4.7%), dog hair (4.5%) cat fur (3.6%), grass pollens (1.1%), and cockroach (0.8%). Although there was no difference tree or weed pollen sensitization, pollen seasonal prevalence of current AR symptoms is highest in spring (80%) versus autumn (52.3%). Seasonal PM10 (particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) levels were correlated with the prevalence of seasonal AR symptoms. Pollen seasonal current AR symptoms were significantly related to seasonal pollen sensitization, but not inhalant allergens including dust mites.

Conclusion

There was a rapid increasing prevalence of AR in preschool children in the areas of urbanization and industrialization. Pollen seasonal current AR symptoms have a close relationship with PM10 and seasonal pollen sensitization.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Child; Allergen; Air pollutant

Figures


Fig. 1
Trial profile. SPT, skin prick test; CLD, chronic lung disease; VLVW, very low birth weight.
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Fig. 2
Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) symptom within 12 months (A) and AR with based on questionnaire and inhalant allergen sensitization (B). Error bars represents 95% confidence interval. The solid line shows trend of prevalence. *P<0.05. **P<0.01.
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Fig. 3
Sensitization rate of allergen types in preschool children according to year. Der f, Dermatophagoides farinae; Der p, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.
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Fig. 4
Seasonal trend of coarse particulate matter (PM10) in study area. PM10, particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter.
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Fig. 5
The correlation between prevalence of current spring and autumn seasonal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) with aeroallergen sensitization (A), seasonal pollen sensitization (B), seasonal mean of daily PM10 (C), seasonal maximum PM10 (D). PM10, particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter.
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Fig. 6
(A-F) The correlation between seasonal air pollutant levels and prevalence of each seasonal symptoms of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms within 12 months.
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Tables


Table 1
Characteristics and allergic rhinitis symptoms of subjects
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Table 2
Annual changes in air pollution of study area
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Table 3
Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR, defined as AR symptom within 12 months and aeroallergen sensitization)
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Notes

This work was supported by the research grant of Chungbuk National University Hospital Clinical Research Support Project in 2012-2017.

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