Journal List > Allergy Asthma Respir Dis > v.6(1) > 1095714

Allergy Asthma Respir Dis. 2018 Jan;6(1):41-46. Korean.
Published online Jan 31, 2018.
© 2018 The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease; The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Relationship of serum vitamin D and interleukin-31 levels to allergic or nonallergic rhinitis in children
Seong Jun Park, Ji Eun Soh, Moon Soo Park, Hye Lim Jung, Jae Won Shim, Deok Soo Kim and Jung Yeon Shim
Department of Pediatrics, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Correspondence to: Jung Yeon Shim. Division of Pediatric Allergy & Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University of Medicine, 29 Saemunan-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 31116, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2001-2484, Fax: +82-2-2001-2199, Email:
Received July 20, 2017; Revised November 01, 2017; Accepted November 02, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (



Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25[OH] D) and interleukin-31 (IL-31) are related to atopic dermatitis, but their relationship with allergic rhinitis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of serum IL-31 and 25 (OH) D between the allergic rhinitis (AR), nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), and control groups and to investigate the relationship between IL-31 and 25 (OH) D.


We recruited 59 children with only rhinitis and 33 controls without any allergic diseases. Serum IL-31 and 25(OH) D levels were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The patients were considered to have atopic sensitization if the levels of serum specific IgE to inhalant allergens as assessed using immunoCAP were ≥0.35 IU/mL or if they tested positive for one or more allergens by the skin prick test.


Of children with rhinitis, 25 had nonatopy (NAR), and 34 children had atopy (AR). Serum 25(OH) D levels were significantly lower in the rhinitis group than in the control group, while there was no significant difference serum 25(OH) D levels between the AR and NAR groups. Children with rhinitis demonstrated higher serum IL-31 levels than controls; however, there was no difference in serum IL-31 levels between the AR and NAR groups. Serum 25(OH) D levels were inversely correlated with serum IL-31 levels and blood eosinophil counts. On the other hand, serum 25(OH) D levels were not correlated with total serum IgE levels.


Serum 25(OH) D and IL-31 may play a role in the pathogenesis of rhinitis via mechanisms other than IgE-related pathway.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Nonallergic rhinitis; Interleukin-31; 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D


Fig. 1
Correlations between serum logVitD and logIL-31 levels (A), between serum logVitD and logTEC levels (B), and between serum logVitD and logIgE levels (C). There were significant negative correlations between logVitD and logIL-31 levels and between logVitD and logTEC levels. Levels of logVitD showed no correlation to logIgE levels. LogTEC, logarithmic transformation of blood total eosinophil count; LogIgE, logarithmic transformation of serum total IgE; LogVitD, logarithmic transformation of serum vitamin D; LogIL-31, logarithmic transformation of serum IL-31.
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Table 2
Comparison of laboratory characteristics between rhinitis and control
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Table 3
Comparison of laboratory characteristics between nonallergic and allergic rhinitis
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