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Int J Thyroidol. 2015 Nov;8(2):147-152. Korean.
Published online November 30, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.11106/ijt.2015.8.2.147
Copyright © 2015. the Korean Thyroid Association. All rights reserved.
Understanding of Cancer Cell Metabolism and Thyroid Cancer
Won Gu Kim and Won Bae Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Correspondence: Won Bae Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Korea. Tel: 82-2-3010-3913, Fax: 82-2-3010-6962, Email: kimwb@amc.seoul.kr
Received May 16, 2015; Revised June 26, 2015; Accepted June 26, 2015.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cell is one of essential hallmarks of cancer. Otto Warburg first demonstrated that cancer cells utilized more glucose and enhanced glycolytic pathway in the presence of oxygen in 1926. Scientific observations of basic and clinical research in several decades supported that cancer-specific metabolism can be an emerging target for treatment of cancer. Metabolic reprogramming is regulated by both oncogenic signaling and tumor suppressor genes associated with critical signaling pathways in metabolism. These changes provided energy, substrates for cell growth and proliferation, favoring microenvironment, and important for redox balancing for cancer cells. Recent advance of several tools for evaluation comprehensive metabolic profiles of cancer cells provided us to identification of metabolic Achilles' heel of cancers including thyroid cancer. This approach can be a useful strategy for advance in treatment of cancer patients.

Keywords: Cancer; Metabolism; Metabolome; Warburg effect

Figures


Fig. 1
Summary of changes in metabolic characteristics of cancer cells. 3PG: 3-phosphoglycerate, αKG: alphaketoglutarate, AcCoA: Acetyl coenzyme A, FA: fatty acids, G6P: glucose-6-phosphate, Gln: glutamate, Glu: glutamine, PPP: pentose phosphate pathway. Bold arrow indicates increase of metabolic pathways in cancers.
Click for larger image

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