Journal List > Korean J Adult Nurs > v.25(5) > 1094444

Kim and Kim: Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Physiological Indices, Muscle Mass, and Physical Functions of Aged Women

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemental vitamin D on the physiological indices, muscle mass, and physical functions of aged women.

Methods

A non-equivalent pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 65 elderly women with low serum vitamin D levels. This study was conducted for 12 weeks. The experimental group (n=34) received vitamin D and regular exercise whereas the control group (n=31) received only regular exercise. The data were analyzed by the IBM PASW Statistics (SPSS) 19.0 program.

Results

Serum vitamin D (U=0.00, p<.001), parathyroid hormone (U=99.50, p<.001) and calcium (U=250.50, p<.001) levels were significantly increased in the experimental group after the intervention. The experimental group showed significantly increased scores of muscle mass, strength, physical balance, and gait compared to those of the control group.

Conclusion

Vitamin D supplementation improved physiological indices, muscle mass, and physical functions. In addition, this program may help to prevent disorders of the musculoskeletal system in aged women.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Contents of Exercise Program

kjan-25-539-i001
Table 2

Homogeneity test of General Characteristics (N=65)

kjan-25-539-i002

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Table 3

Homogeneity test of Vit D related Characteristics (N=65)

kjan-25-539-i003

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group; 25 (OH)D=25-hydroxyvitamin D; PTH=parathyroid hormone.

Table 4

Differences in Physiological Indices and Muscle Mass between Experimental and Control Groups (N=65)

kjan-25-539-i004

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group; 25 (OH)D=25-hydroxyvitamin D; PTH=parathyroid hormone.

Table 5

Differences in Physical Functions between Experimental and Control Groups (N=65)

kjan-25-539-i005

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Notes

This article is based on a part of the first author's doctoral thesis from Ewha womans University.

References

1. Bartoszewska M, Kamboj M, Patel DR. Vitamin D, muscle function, and exercise performance. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2010; 57(3):849–861.
2. Bunout D, Barreraa G, Leviaa L, Gattasa V, Avendañoa M, Hirscha S, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. Experimental Gerontology. 2006; 41(8):746–752.
3. Cannell JJ, Hollis BW. Use of vitamin D in clinical practice. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008; 13(1):6–20.
4. Ceglia L. Vitamin D and skeletal muscle tissue and function. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2008; 29(6):407–414. DOI: 10.1016/j.mam.2008.07.002.
5. Diffey BL. Is casual exposure to summer sunlight effective at maintaining adequate vitamin D status? Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. 2010; 26:172–176.
6. Faulkner JA, Larkin LM, Claflin DR, Brooks SV. Age-related changes in the structure and function of skeletal muscle. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 2007; 34:1091–1096. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04752.x.
7. Gordon PL, Sakkas GK, Doyle JW, Shubert T, Johansen KL. Relationship between vitamin D and muscle size and strength in patients on hemodialysis. Journal of Renal Nutrition. 2007; 17(6):397–407.
8. Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Salive ME, Wallace RB. Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1995; 332(9):556–561.
9. Hamilton B. Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010; 20(2):182–190. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01016.x.
10. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of Vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011; 96(7):1911–1930. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385.
11. Houston DK, Tooze JA, Davis CC, Chaves PH, Hirsch CH, Robbins JA, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and physical function in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011; 59(10):1793–1801. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03601.x.
12. Janssen HC, Emmelot-vonk MH, Verhaar HJ, van der Schouw YT. Vitamin D, muscle function, and exercise performance. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2013; 57(3):849–861. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.05.012.
13. Kenny RA, Rubenstein LZ, Tinetti ME, Brewer K, Cameron KA, Capezuti EA, et al. Summary of the updated American geriatrics society/British geriatrics society clinical practice guideline for prevention of falls in older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011; 59(1):148–157. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03234.x.
14. Kim MK, Baek KH, Song KH, Kang MI, Park CY, Lee WY, et al. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans, regardless of obesity: The fourth Korea national health and nutrition examination surveys (KNHANES IV) 2009. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2011; 96(10):3250–3256. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-1602.
15. Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society;2010.
16. Lee MK, Yoon BK, Chung HY, Park HM. The Serum Vitamin D nutritional status and its relationship with skeletal status in Korean postmenopausal women. Obstetrics & Gynecology Science. 2011; 54(5):241–246. DOI: 10.5468/KJOG.2011.54.5.241.
17. Mastaglia SR, Seijo M, Muzio D, Somoza J, Nunez M, Oliveri B. Effect of vitamin D nutritional status on muscle function and strength in healthy women aged over sixty-five years. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2011; 15(5):349–354.
18. Moreira-Pfrimer LD, Pedrosa MA, Teixeira L, Lazaretti-Castro M. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency increases lower limb muscle strength in institutionalized older people independently of regular physical activity: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 2009; 54(4):291–300. DOI: 10.1159/000235874.
19. Moyal DD. Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide better protection from solar ultraviolet-simulated radiation and natural sunlight-induced immunosuppression in human beings. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2008; 58(5):S149–S154. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2007.04.035.
20. Muir SW. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength, gait and balance in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011; 59(12):2291–2300. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-415.2011.03733.x.
21. National Institute on Aging National Institute of Health. Excercise and physical activity. 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2012. from National Institute on Aging National Institute of Health Web site: www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life.
22. Okuno J, Tomura S, Yabushita N, Kim MJ, Okura T, Tanaka K, et al. Effects of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (3) levels on physical fitness in community-dwelling frail women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatric. 2010; 50(2):121–126. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.
23. Park BJ. Integrative approach to elderly frailty. Journal of Family Medicine. 2010; 31:747–754. DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.2010.31.10.747.
24. Park SW. Sarcopenia of the old age. Journal of Korean Society of Endocrinology. 2007; 22(1):1–7.
25. Park TJ, Cho YE, Choi YJ, Kim YK, Ahn SM, Jung SH, et al. The effects of oral vitamin D supplement in vitamin D inadequacy. Journal of The Korean Society of Osteoporosis. 2005; 3(2):121–125.
26. Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW. Vitamin D and function. Osteoporosis International. 2002; 13(3):187–194.
27. Robinson S, Cooper C, Aihie Sayer A. Nutrition and sarcopenia: A review of the evidence and implications for preventive strategies. Journal of Aging Research. 2012; 2012:1–6.
28. Smedshaug GB, Pedersen JI, Meyer HE. Can vitamin D supplementation improve grip strength in elderly nursing home residents? A double-blinded controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Food & Nutrition. 2009; 51(2):74–78. DOI: 10.1080/03461230701422528.
29. Stockton KA, Mengersen K, Paratz JD, Kandiah D, Bennell KL. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International. 2011; 22(3):859–871. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1407-y.
30. Zhu K, Austin N, Devine A, Bruce D, Prince RL. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin D on muscle strength and mobility in older women with vitamin D insufficiency. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2010; 58(11):2063–2068. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03142.x.
TOOLS
Similar articles