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Korean J Health Promot. 2016 Sep;16(3):153-161. Korean.
Published online September 30, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.15384/kjhp.2016.16.3.153
Copyright © 2016 Korean Society for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Facial Flushing Response and Dyslipidemia in Male
Kyu Pill Kim, Jong Sung Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Jin Kyu Jung, Seok Joon Yoon and Chang Jung Wei
Department of Family Medicine, Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

Corresponding author: Jong Sung Kim, MD, PhD. Department of Family Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, 282 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 35015, Korea. Tel: +82-42-280-8172, Fax: +82-42-280-7879, Email: jskim@cnuh.co.kr
Received January 12, 2016; Accepted September 01, 2016.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Background

Facial flushing response to drinking is observed in East Asians with deficient activity of the variant aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype. This study examined the role of flushing response in the relationship between alcohol consumption and dyslipidemia.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 1,443 Korean men, including 261 non-drinkers, 470 flushers and 712 non-flushers. Based on a questionnaire, weekly alcohol consumption was assessed and categorized into 4 groups. Dyslipidemia was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. After adjusting for confounding factors, we evaluated the relationship between weekly alcoholic drinks and dyslipidemia in flushers and non-flushers by comparing with non-drinkers, using a multi-variable logistic regression analysis.

Results

Non-flushers had a significant relationship between hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol consumption in two groups (4-8 drinks: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.937, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.029-3.644; ≥16 drinks: aOR 2.118, 95% CI 1.272-3.527) in contrast to flushers, who showed no significant relationship between hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol consumption. Non-flushers had a significant relationship to low serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in four groups (<4 drinks: aOR 0.428, 95% CI 0.277-0.662; 4-8 drinks: aOR 0.409, 95% CI 0.216-0.774; 8-16 drinks: aOR 0.285, 95% CI 0.152-0.536; ≥16 drinks: aOR 0.343, 95% CI 0.207-0.568), and flushers had a significant relationship in two groups (8-16 drinks: aOR 0.234, 95% CI 0.102-0.536; ≥16 drinks: aOR 0.342, 95% CI 0.166-0.705).

Conclusions

Our results suggest that drinking alcohol increases the risk of hypertriglyceridemia in non-flushers and the risk of low HDL cholesterol flushers.

Keywords: Alcohol drinking; Flushing; Dyslipidemias; High density lipoprotein cholesterol; Triglycerides

Figures


Figure 1
Prevalence of high LDL-C according to weekly drinking amount.
Abbreviation: LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

aDefined as serum LDL-C≥160 mg/dL in NCEP-ATP III criteria.

bCompared with non-drinkers by Fisher's exact test, not chi-square test.

Click for larger image


Figure 2
Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia according to weekly drinking amount.
aDefined as serum total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL in NCEP-ATP III criteria.

bCompared with non-drinkers by Fisher's exact test, not chi-square test.

Click for larger image


Figure 3
Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia according to weekly drinking amount.
aDefined as serum triglyceride ≥200 mg/dL in NCEP-ATP III criteria.

bP<0.05 via chi-square test as compared with non-drinkers.

cP<0.001 via chi-square test as compared with non-drinkers.

Click for larger image


Figure 4
Prevalence of low HDL-C according to weekly drinking amount.
Abbreviation: HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

aDefined as serum HDL-C <40 mg/dL in NCEP-ATP III criteria.

bP<0.01 via chi-square test as compared with non-drinkers.

cP<0.001 via chi-square test as compared with non-drinkers.

Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Characteristics of the subjects
Click for larger image


Table 2
Relationship dyslipidemia and weekly alcohol drinks in flushers and non-flushers
Click for larger image


Table 3
Relationship dyslipidemia and weekly alcohol drinks in flushers, comparing with non-flushersa,b
Click for larger image

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